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The gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) is the essential condition for gas hydrate accumulation, which is controlled by three main factors: gas component, geothermal gradient and permafrost thickness. Based on the gas component of hydrate samples from drilling in Muri coalfield, the gas hydrate phase equilibrium curve was calculated using Sloan's natural gas hydrate phase equilibrium procedure (CSMHYD) program. Through temperature data processing of coalfield boreholes, some important data such as thickness of permafrost and geothermal gradient were obtained. The GHSZ parameters of a single borehole were calculated by programming based on the above basic data. The average thickness of GHSZ of 85 boreholes in Muri coalfield amounted to approximately 1000 m, indicating very broad space for gas hydrate occurrence. The isogram of GHSZ bottom depth drawn from single borehole data in Muri coalfield demonstrated the regional distribution characteristics of GHSZ, and identified three favourable areas of gas hydrate occurrence where the bottom of GHSZ had a burial depth >1500 m – namely, the southern part of Juhugeng Mining Area, the middle part of Duosuogongma Mining Area and the eastern part of Xuehuoli Mining Area.
Celestial navigation is an important means of maritime navigation; it can automatically achieve inertially referenced positioning and orientation after a long period of development. However, the impact of different accuracy of observations and the influence of nonstationary states, such as ship speed change and steering, are not taken into account in existing algorithms. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an adaptively robust maritime celestial navigation algorithm, in which each observation value is given an equivalent weight according to the robust estimation theory, and the dynamic balance between astronomical observation and prediction values of vessel motion is adjusted by applying the adaptive factor. With this system, compared with the frequently used least square method and extended Kalman filter algorithm, not only are the real-time and high-precision navigation parameters, such as position, course, and speed for the vessel, calculated simultaneously, but also the influence of abnormal observation and vessel motion status change could be well suppressed.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
This study aimed to investigate differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility of members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC): subsp. massiliense and subsp. abscessus, and to identify associations between strain genotypes and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. A total of 383 clinical MABC isolates (subsp. abscessus: n = 218, 56.9%; subsp. massiliense: n = 163, 42.6%; subsp. bolletii: n = 2, 0.5%) were characterised using multilocus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing and drug susceptibility testing. Most isolates exhibited susceptibility to amikacin, clarithromycin and azithromycin but resistance to cefoxitin and minocycline was statistically more associated with isolates unclustered by VNTR type. The Simpson's diversity indexes of VNTR typing for M. abscessus and M. massiliense isolates were 0.999 and 0.997, respectively. Genotyping of M. abscessus and M. massiliense isolates by VNTR may provide valuable information for predicting resistance phenotype.
It is well concluded that microbial composition and diversity of coral species can be affected under temperature alterations. However, the interaction of environmental accumulation of corals and temperature stress on symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities are rarely studied. In this study, two groups of soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum were cultured under constant (26 °C) and inconstant (22 °C to 26 °C) temperature conditions for 30 days as control treatments. After that, water was cooled rapidly to decrease to 20 °C in 24 h. The results of diversity analysis showed that symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities had a significant difference between the two accumulated groups. The principal coordinate analyses confirmed that symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities of both control treatments were clustered into two groups. Our results evidenced that rapid cooling stress could not change symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities’ composition. On the other hand, cooling stress could alter only bacterial communities in constant group. In conclusion, our study represents a clear relationship between environmental accumulation and the impact of short-term cooling stress in which microbial composition structure can be affected by early adaptation conditions.
Electromagnetic inverse-scattering problems (ISPs) are concerned with determining the properties of an unknown object using measured scattered fields. ISPs are often highly nonlinear, causing the problem to be very difficult to address. In addition, the reconstruction images of different optimization methods are distorted which leads to inaccurate reconstruction results. To alleviate these issues, we propose a new linear model solution of generative adversarial network-based (LM-GAN) inspired by generative adversarial networks (GAN). Two sub-networks are trained alternately in the adversarial framework. A linear deep iterative network as a generative network captures the spatial distribution of the data, and a discriminative network estimates the probability of a sample from the training data. Numerical results validate that LM-GAN has admirable fidelity and accuracy when reconstructing complex scatterers.
As a neuroprogressive illness, depression is accompanied by brain structural abnormality that extends to many brain regions. However, the progressive structural alteration pattern remains unknown.
To elaborate the progressive structural alteration of depression according to illness duration, we recruited 195 never-treated first-episode patients with depression and 130 healthy controls (HCs) undergoing T1-weighted MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry method was adopted to measure gray matter volume (GMV) for each participant. Patients were first divided into three stages according to the length of illness duration, then we explored stage-specific GMV alterations and the causal effect relationship between them using causal structural covariance network (CaSCN) analysis.
Overall, patients with depression presented stage-specific GMV alterations compared with HCs. Regions including the hippocampus, the thalamus and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) presented GMV alteration at onset of illness. Then as the illness advanced, others regions began to present GMV alterations. These results suggested that GMV alteration originated from the hippocampus, the thalamus and vmPFC then expanded to other brain regions. The results of CaSCN analysis revealed that the hippocampus and the vmPFC corporately exerted causal effect on regions such as nucleus accumbens, the precuneus and the cerebellum. In addition, GMV alteration in the hippocampus was also potentially causally related to that in the dorsolateral frontal gyrus.
Consistent with the neuroprogressive hypothesis, our results reveal progressive morphological alteration originating from the vmPFC and the hippocampus and further elucidate possible details about disease progression of depression.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
The coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a major destructive pest of Coffea arabica L. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), widely planted in many Asian countries, including China. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a common method for quantitative analysis of gene transcription levels. To obtain accurate and reliable qRT-PCR results, it is necessary to select suitable reference genes to different experimental conditions for normalizing the target gene expression. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes in X. quadripes has rarely been studied. In this study, the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes were investigated under biotic and abiotic conditions for use in qRT-PCR's normalization. By integrating the results of four algorithms of NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm, and RefFinder, the optimal reference gene combinations in different experimental conditions were performed as follows: RPL10a and EIF3D were the optimal reference genes for developmental stage samples, EIF4E, RPL10a, and RPS27a for tissue samples, V-ATP and EF1α for the sex samples, EIF3D and V-ATP for temperature treatment, RPS27a and RPL10a for insecticide stress, and RPL10a, RPS27a, and EF1α for all the samples. This study will help to obtain the stable internal reference genes under biotic and abiotic conditions and lay the foundation for in-depth functional research of target genes or genomics on olfactory molecular mechanisms, temperature adaptability, and insecticide resistance in X. quadripes.
This study characterises changes in the incidence and mortality of hepatitis A in different age groups and provinces of China from 1990 to 2018, and evaluates the effect of the nation-wide expanded programme on immunisation (EPI). A mathematical model was used to estimate the relative change in incidence and mortality in different provinces and age groups. Interrupted time series regression was applied to evaluate the impacts of the inclusion of vaccination in the EPI during 2007–2018. The geographic clustering of hepatitis A incidence was assessed using global Moran's I and changing trends over time were estimated using joinpoint regression analysis. Both the incidence (odds ratio (OR) for overall relative change: 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–0.87; P < 0.0001) and the mortality rate (OR for overall relative change: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.83–0.85; P < 0.0001) decreased. Most age groups had significant declines in reported incidence over time. The incidence and mortality of hepatitis A significantly reduced after inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in EPI, showing that the EPI strategy had a continuous effect on the decreasing trend of hepatitis A burden. Increasing the coverage rate of the vaccine and improving hygiene conditions are the key measures for the control of hepatitis A in China.
What are the major factors contributing to ship accidents, and how do these factors evolve in the long term? This study addresses these two questions by leveraging an unsupervised machine learning method named structural topic modelling to identify the causes of ship accidents. The study analysed 2,341 task errors manually collected from 441 reports issued by four government agencies covering a 45-year time span. The results show that the structure of causes of ship accidents remained essentially the same during this period. This highlights the social-material aspect of navigation technology, indicating that the use of advanced technology may not necessarily lead to safer navigation practices, and the interaction between the technology and human agency must be focused on in the bridge management context. Additionally, the computer-assisted textual data analysis highlights pilot-related factors, which might be rooted in the unsupervised and difficult-to-verify handover procedures between pilots and captains, thereby underlining the importance of appropriate piloting regulations.
The tropical areas of eastern Asia contain a high diversity of foliicolous lichens, including various species of the genus Badimia. Badimia xanthocampylidia W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described from tropical rainforests in southern China and Thailand based on morphology, chemistry, and combined mtSSU, ITS and nrLSU sequences. It is characterized by a pale green thallus with yellow verrucae and bright yellow campylidia and the presence of isousnic acid. Three other species, B. multiseptata Papong & Lücking, B. pallidula (Kremp.) Vězda and B. polillensis (Vain.) Vězda, are discussed and the genus Badimia is newly reported from China. A worldwide key to currently known species in the genus is presented.
Sarcopenic obesity is regarded as a risk factor for the progression and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Since male sex is a risk factor for NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass markedly varies between the sexes, we examined whether sex influences the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SVR), that is, an index of skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity, and the histological severity of NAFLD. The SVR was measured by bioelectrical impedance in a cohort of 613 (M/F = 443/170) Chinese middle-aged individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Multivariable logistic regression and subgroup analyses were used to test the association between SVR and the severity of NAFLD (i.e. non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH with the presence of any stage of liver fibrosis). NASH was identified by a NAFLD activity score ≥5, with a minimum score of 1 for each of its categories. The presence of fibrosis was classified as having a histological stage ≥1. The SVR was inversely associated with NASH in men (adjusted OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92, P = 0·017 for NASH, adjusted OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·99, P = 0·043 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis), but not in women (1·47 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·83), P = 0·25 for NASH, and 1·45 (95 % CI 0·74, 2·83), P = 0·28 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). There was a significant interaction for sex and SVR (Pinteraction = 0·017 for NASH and Pinteraction = 0·033 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). Our findings show that lower skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity is strongly associated with the presence of NASH only in men.