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The rearrangement of drainage basins provides critical insight into crustal deformation and geodynamic mechanisms. Near the southeastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau, the Dadu River abruptly shifts from south- to east-flowing, providing important implications for regional tectonogeomorphic development since the mid-Pleistocene. South of the bend, the headwaters of the Anning River occupy an unusually wide valley. Field investigations show that large quantities of fluvial/lacustrine sediments are widespread along the Dadu and Anning rivers and are exposed at their drainage divide. Detrital zircon U-Pb age patterns confirm that these fluvial/lacustrine sediments are the remnants of the paleo-Dadu River, which strongly suggests that the paleo-Dadu River originally flowed southward into the Anning River. The cosmogenic nuclide burial ages of the lacustrine sediments along the Dadu and Anning rivers suggest deposition of these sediments from separate dammed lakes ca. 1.2 Ma ago, ca. 0.6 Ma ago, and ca. 0.9 Ma ago from north to south, respectively. Provenance and burial-age studies indicate that reorganization of the Dadu drainage occurred within the last 0.6 Ma. We propose that this drainage reorganization in southeastern Tibet resulted from progressive convergence between the India and Eurasian plates during the Pleistocene.
This study aimed to evaluate the recent prevalence and the distributions of morphological subtypes of anaemia in the rural population.
Anaemia was defined according to the WHO and the Chinese criteria, and the morphological subtypes of anaemia were classified based on the erythrocyte parameters. The age-standardised prevalence was calculated according to the data of the Population Census 2010 in China.
A cross-sectional study in Henan Province.
33 585 subjects aged 18–79 years old.
The standardised prevalence of anaemia across the WHO and the Chinese definitions was 13·63 % and 5·45 %, respectively. Regardless of which criteria was used, the standardised prevalence of anaemia was higher among women than among men and that increased with age in men, while markedly decreased after menopause in women. There were shifts in morphological patterns of anaemia using the WHO and the Chinese criteria that the standardised prevalence of microcytic anaemia was 3·74 % and 2·97 %, normocytic anaemia was 9·20 % and 2·34 %, and macrocytic anaemia was 0·75 % and 0·14 %, respectively. Besides, there were differences in the influencing factors of anaemia according to different criteria or gender. However, age, education level and renal damage were consistently significantly associated with anaemia in all participants.
Anaemia may still be a serious health problem in rural China. It is necessary to reformulate prevention and management strategies to reduce the disease burden of anaemia.
To meet the increasing communication demands, the satellites need to be equipped with the high-accuracy and large-aperture antennas. One of the effective methods to construct the modular antennas with ultra-high accuracy and ultra-large aperture is on-orbit assembly technology. During the on-orbit assembly missions, the assembly error is a key factor to affect the surface accuracy of the modular antennas. This paper studies the node design of each module and the assembly error analysis of the modular antennas. A design method of the module nodes is presented with consideration of the assembly gap between two modules. Meanwhile, a soft connection mechanism is designed to ensure the mobility among the assembly modules. To investigate the transmission law of the assembly errors, an analytical model of assembly error is derived based on the exponential product method. In order to establish the deformation surface with rotation and displacement assembly errors, an error ball concept is proposed by the analytical model. To decrease the assembly errors, the actuators are installed among some modules. Moreover, an adjustment method is proposed to obtain the adjustment amounts of actuators. Finally, the correctness of analytical model and the effectiveness of the adjustment method are demonstrated by the numerical simulations.
In detonation engines and accidental explosions, a detonation may propagate in an inhomogeneous mixture with non-uniform reactant concentration. In this study, one- and two-dimensional simulations are conducted for detonation propagation in hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures with periodic sinusoidal or square wave distribution of the reactant concentration. The objective is to assess the properties of detonation propagation in such inhomogeneous mixtures. Specifically, detonation quenching and reinitiation, cellular structure, cell size and detonation speed deficit are investigated. It is found that there exists a critical amplitude of the periodic mixture composition distribution, above which the detonation quenches. When the amplitude is below the critical value, detonation quenching and reinitiation occur alternately. A double cellular structure consisting of substructures and a large-scale structure is found for a two-dimensional detonation propagating in inhomogeneous mixtures with a periodic reactant concentration gradient. The detonation reinitiation process and the formation of the double cellular structure are interpreted. To quantify the properties of detonation propagation in different inhomogeneous mixtures, the large cell size, critical amplitude, transition distance and detonation speed deficit are compared for hydrogen/air without and with nitrogen dilution and for periodic sine wave and square wave distributions of the reactant concentration. The large-scale cell size is found to be linearly proportional to the wavelength, and both the critical amplitude and the transition distance decrease with the wavelength. The small detonation speed deficit is shown to be due to the incomplete combustion of the reactant. This work provides helpful understanding of the features of detonation propagation in inhomogeneous mixtures.
Industrial robots are widely used in the painting industry, such as automobile manufacturing and solid wood furniture industry. An important problem is how to improve the efficiency of robot programming, especially in the current furniture industry with multiple products, small batches and increasingly high demand for customization. In this work, we propose an outer loop adaptive control scheme, which allow users to realize the practical application of the zero-moment lead-through teaching method based on dynamic model without opening the inner torque control interface of robots. In order to accurately estimate the influence of joint friction, a friction model is established based on static, Coulomb and viscous friction characteristics, and the Sigmoid function is used to represent the transition between motion states. An identification method is used to quickly identify the dynamic parameters of the robot. The joint position/speed command of the robot’s inner joint servo loop is dynamically generated based on the user-designed adaptive control law. In addition, the zero-moment lead-through teaching scheme based on the dynamic model is applied to a spray-painting robot with closed control system. In order to verify our method, CMA GR630ST is used to conduct experiments. We identified the parameters of the dynamic model and carried out the zero-moment lead-through teaching experiment to track the target trajectory. The results show that the proposed method can realize the application of modern control methods in industrial robot with closed control systems, and achieve a preliminary exploration to improve the application scenarios of spray-painting robots.
High-performance electrodes with outstanding catalysts play a vital role in the commercial application of direct ethanol fuel cells. In the present study, a supported catalyst with controllable Pd loading, prepared using a facile impregnation method with sepiolite as a carrier, was synthesized and tested for electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol. Physical characterization revealed the pore structure and large specific surface area of the sepiolite, which provided excellent conditions for the loading of nanometal clusters. The Pd-sepiolite had greater electrocatalytic ethanol activity and anti-intermediate product poisoning performance than a metallic Pd disc electrode under alkaline conditions. Under these experimental conditions, the electrochemical activity in terms of ethanol oxidation increased significantly with increasing Pd loading. Considering both the activity and stability of the electrodes, 23 wt.% Pd loading on sepiolite was selected with a coating amount of 140 μg cm–2 on glassy carbon. Factors such as ethanol/potassium hydroxide concentration, scanning rate and temperature had direct impacts on peak current densities as well as on reaction kinetics as depicted by Tafel plots. The electrochemical impedance test showed that Pd intercalation could improve significantly the conductivity of sepiolite and reduce the electron-transfer resistance in the electrocatalytic process. Thus, Pd-loaded sepiolite is a simple and effective catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.
Many protected areas worldwide have been established to protect the last natural refuges of flagship animal species. However, long-established protected areas do not always match the current distributions of target species under changing environmental conditions. Here we present a case study of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus in Xishuangbanna, south-west China, to evaluate whether the established protected areas match the species’ current distribution and to identify key habitat patches for Asian elephant conservation. Our results show that currently only 24.5% of the predicted Asian elephant distribution in Xishuangbanna is located within Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, which was established for elephant conservation. Based on the predicted Asian elephant distribution, we identified the most important habitat patches for elephant conservation in Xishuangbanna. The three most important patches were outside Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve and together they contained 43.3% of the estimated food resources for Asian elephants in all patches in Xishuangbanna. Thus, we identified a spatial mismatch between immobile protected areas and mobile animals. We recommend the inclusion of the three identified key habitat patches in a new national park currently being planned by the Chinese authorities for the conservation of the Asian elephant.
The mitochondrial genome provides important information for phylogenetic analysis and an understanding of evolutionary origin. In this study, the mitochondrial genomes of Ilisha elongata and Setipinna tenuifilis were sequenced, which are typical circular vertebrate mitochondrial genomes composed of 16,770 and 16,805 bp, respectively. The mitogenomes of I. elongata and S. tenuifilis include 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and one control region (CR). Both two species' genome compositions were highly A + T biased and exhibited positive AT-skews and negative GC-skews. The genetic distance and Ka/Ks ratio analyses indicated that 13 PCGs were affected by purifying selection and the selection pressures were different from certain deep-sea fishes, which were most likely due to the difference in their living environment. Results of phylogenetic analysis support close relationships among Chirocentridae, Denticipitidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Pristigasteridae based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs. Within Clupeoidei, I. elongata and S. tenuifilis were most closely related to the family Pristigasteridae and Engraulidae, respectively. These results will help to better understand the evolutionary position of Clupeiformes and provide a reference for further phylogenetic research on Clupeiformes species.
Enstrophy production and flow topology are numerically investigated for statistically stationary compressible isotropic turbulence in vibrational non-equilibrium with a large-scale thermal forcing. The net enstrophy production term is decomposed into solenoidal, dilatational and isotropic dilatational terms based on the Helmholtz decomposition. From the full flow field perspective, the net enstrophy production mainly stems from the solenoidal term. For the dilatational and isotropic dilatational terms, although their local magnitudes can be considerable, the positive values in the compression region and the negative values in the expansion region cancel out on average. For the solenoidal component of the deviatoric strain-rate tensor, the statistical properties of its eigenvalues and alignments between vorticity and its eigenvectors are nearly independent of the local dilatation and vibrational relaxation. The solenoidal components of enstrophy production along three eigendirections are thus mainly affected by the vorticity. For the dilatational component of deviatoric strain-rate tensor, the statistical properties of its eigenvalues and alignments between vorticity and its eigenvectors closely relate to the local dilatation and vibrational relaxation. The dilatational components of enstrophy production along three eigendirections are therefore affected by the vorticity, eigenvalues and alignments between the vorticity and eigenvectors. The topological classification proposed by Chong et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 2, issue 5, 1990, pp. 765–777) is employed to decompose the flow field into various flow topologies. In the strong compression and strong expansion regions, the relaxation effects on the volume fractions of flow topologies and their relative contributions to the local enstrophy production are significant.
Recently, the collisionless pitch-angle scattering for relativistic runaway electrons (REs) in toroidal geometries such as tokamaks was discovered through a full orbit simulation approach (Liu et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 56, 2016, p. 064002), and it was then theoretically investigated that a new expression for the magnetic moment, including the second-order corrections, could essentially reproduce the so-called collisionless pitch-angle scattering process (Liu et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 58, 2018, p. 106018). In this paper, with synchrotron radiation, extensive numerical verification of the validity of the high-order guiding-centre theory is given for simulations involving REs by incorporating such an expression for the magnetic moment into our particle tracing code. A high-order guiding-centre simulation approach with synchrotron radiation (HGSA) is applied. Synchrotron radiation plays an essential role in the life cycle of REs. The energy of REs first increases and then becomes saturated until the electric field acceleration is balanced by the radiation dissipation. Unfortunately, the process cannot be simulated accurately with the standard guiding-centre model, i.e. the first-order guiding-centre model. Remarkably, it is found that the HGSA can effectively produce the fundamental process of REs. Since the time scale of the energy saturation of REs is close to seconds, the computational cost becomes significant. In order to save costs, it is necessary to estimate the time of energy saturation. An analytical estimate is derived for the time it takes for synchrotron drag to balance an accelerating electric field and the provided formula has been numerically verified. Test calculations reveal that HGSA is favourable for exploiting the dynamics of REs in tokamak plasmas.
COVID-19 has long-term impacts on public mental health, while few research studies incorporate multidimensional methods to thoroughly characterise the psychological profile of general population and little detailed guidance exists for mental health management during the pandemic. This research aims to capture long-term psychological profile of general population following COVID-19 by integrating trajectory modelling approaches, latent trajectory pattern identification and network analyses.
Longitudinal data were collected from a nationwide sample of 18 804 adults in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak in China. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and Insomnia Severity Index were used to measure depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively. The unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models were fitted to investigate trajectories and long-term predictors for psychological symptoms. We employed latent growth mixture model to identify the major psychological symptom trajectory patterns, and ran sparse Gaussian graphical models with graphical lasso to explore the evolution of psychopathological network.
At 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak, psychological symptoms generally alleviated, and five psychological symptom trajectories with different demographics were identified: normal stable (63.4%), mild stable (15.3%), mild-increase to decrease (11.7%), mild-decrease to increase (4.0%) and moderate/severe stable (5.5%). The finding indicated that there were still about 5% individuals showing consistently severe distress and approximately 16% following fluctuating psychological trajectories, who should be continuously monitored. For individuals with persistently severe trajectories and those with fluctuating trajectories, central or bridge symptoms in the network were mainly ‘motor abnormality’ and ‘sad mood’, respectively. Compared with initial peak and late COVID-19 phase, aftermath of initial peak might be a psychologically vulnerable period with highest network connectivity. The central and bridge symptoms for aftermath of initial peak (‘appetite change’ and ‘trouble of relaxing’) were totally different from those at other pandemic phases (‘sad mood’).
This research identified the overall growing trend, long-term predictors, trajectory classes and evolutionary pattern of psychopathological network of psychological symptoms in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak. It provides a multidimensional long-term psychological profile of the general population after COVID-19 outbreak, and accentuates the essentiality of continuous psychological monitoring, as well as population- and time-specific psychological management after COVID-19. We believe our findings can offer reference for long-term psychological management after pandemics.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
Studies have shown that people with internet gaming disorder (IGD) exhibit impaired executive control of gaming cravings; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. In addition, these conclusions were based on the hypothesis that brain networks are temporally static, neglecting dynamic changes in cognitive processes.
Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 402 subjects [162 subjects with IGD and 240 recreational game users (RGUs)]. The community structure (recruitment and integration) of the executive control network (ECN) and the basal ganglia network (BGN), which represents the reward network, of patients with IGD and RGUs were compared. Mediation effects among the different networks were analyzed.
Compared to RGUs, subjects with IGD had a lower recruitment coefficient within the right ECN. Further analysis showed that only male subjects had a lower recruitment coefficient. Mediation analysis showed that the integration coefficient of the right ECN mediated the relationship between the recruitment coefficients of both the right ECN and the BGN in RGUs.
Male subjects with IGD had a lower recruitment coefficient than RGUs, which impairing their impulse control. The mediation results suggest that top-down executive control of the ECN is absent in subjects with IGD. Together, these findings could explain why subjects with IGD exhibit impaired executive control of gaming cravings; these results have important therapeutic implications for developing effective interventions for IGD.
Because of the high photon flux, the Crab nebula pulsar is widely used as the observation target for X-ray pulsar-based navigation. The built profile of the Crab pulsar will change over time, however, which means that the pre-calibrated template cannot be used for the long term. In this paper, a novel pulsar-based template-independent navigation method is proposed. The detected phase propagation model is given as a term of position of the vehicle, taking the orbital motion into account. A different method of time-of-arrival process between the recovered profiles is introduced. With the aid of orbital transition matrix, a measurement model is derived to be a term of velocity error of the vehicle varying with time. The state errors of the vehicle are transformed into velocity errors by performing multi-segment observations to achieve the navigation system observability. The navigation equations of the system are then established and can be solved directly. Some simulations are performed to verify the method and suggest that the proposed method is feasible, effective and easy to implement. The precise orbit information of the vehicle can be determined. The state estimation accuracy is basically consistent with the traditional filtering algorithms, and the computational cost is still very low.
We report on a vortex laser chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system that delivers pulses with a peak power of 45 TW. A focused intensity exceeding 1019 W/cm2 has been demonstrated for the first time by the vortex amplification scheme. Compared with other schemes of strong-field vortex generation with high energy flux but narrowband vortex-converting elements at the end of the laser, an important advantage of our scheme is that we can use a broadband but size-limited q-plate to realize broadband mode-converting in the front end of the CPA system, and achieve high-power amplification with a series of amplifiers. This method is low cost and can be easily implemented in an existing laser system. The results have verified the feasibility to obtain terawatt and even petawatt vortex laser amplification by a CPA system, which has important potential applications in strong-field laser physics, for example, generation of vortex particle beams with orbital angular momentum, fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion and simulation of the extreme astrophysical environment.
Metonymy resolution (MR) is a challenging task in the field of natural language processing. The task of MR aims to identify the metonymic usage of a word that employs an entity name to refer to another target entity. Recent BERT-based methods yield state-of-the-art performances. However, they neither make full use of the entity information nor explicitly consider syntactic structure. In contrast, in this paper, we argue that the metonymic process should be completed in a collaborative manner, relying on both lexical semantics and syntactic structure (syntax). This paper proposes a novel approach to enhancing BERT-based MR models with hard and soft syntactic constraints by using different types of convolutional neural networks to model dependency parse trees. Experimental results on benchmark datasets (e.g., ReLocaR, SemEval 2007 and WiMCor) confirm that leveraging syntactic information into fine pre-trained language models benefits MR tasks.
The aim of this study was to explore the status of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in three areas with differing water iodine concentrations; and to discuss the relationships between these two thyroid antibodies and thyroid diseases in the three areas. We investigated 2503 adults from three areas. Urinary iodine concentrations, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), TPOAb, TGAb and thyroid volume (TV) were measured, and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. The positivity rates of TGAb(+), TPOAb(+) and TGAb(+) and TPOAb(+) or TGAb(+) were significantly higher in iodine fortification (IF) areas than iodine adequate (IA) areas (all P < 0·05). In IF and iodine excess areas, the positivity rates of TPOAb(+), TGAb(+) and TPOAb(+) or TGAb(+) significantly increased with age (all P for trend < 0·05). The levels of TSH, TV and the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and goitre were significantly elevated in the thyroid antibody-positive groups in the three areas, but the FT3 was diminished (all P < 0·010). Positivity for TPOAb and TGAb was associated with an increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in the three areas. In areas with different median water iodine, positivity for both TPOAb and TGAb was associated with elevated TSH values. Notably, with the increased levels of TPOAb, the frequency of abnormally elevated TSH increased dramatically in the three areas.
To address the shortcomings of existing methods for rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing on a ship at sea, a dual-channel LIDAR searching, positioning, tracking and landing system (DCLSPTLS) is proposed in this paper, which utilises the multi-pulse laser echoes accumulation method and the physical phenomenon that the laser reflectivity of the ship deck in the near-infrared band is four orders of magnitude higher than that of the sea surface. The DCLSPTLS searching and positioning model, tracking model and landing model are established, respectively. The searching and positioning model can provide estimates of the azimuth angle, the distance of the ship relative to the rotorcraft and the ship's course. With the above parameters as inputs, the total tracking time and the direction of the rotorcraft tracking speed can be obtained by using the tracking model. The landing model can calculate the pitch and the roll angles of the ship's deck relative to the rotorcraft by using the least squares method and the laser irradiation coordinates. The simulation shows that the DCLSPTLS can realise the functions of rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing by using the above parameters. To verify the effectiveness of the DCLSPTLS, a functional test is performed using a rotorcraft and a model ship on a lake. The test results are consistent with the results of the simulation.