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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive congenital disease that is characterized by periductular inflammation and fibrosis that leads to bile duct destruction and cholestasis in neonates. Galectin-3 (Gal3) plays a key role in inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma Gal3 levels in early and late BA. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Samples from our institutional Pediatric Liver Biobank were used for this study. Patients were categorized as early BA (at diagnosis), late BA (at liver transplant), early other cholestatic liver disease (CLD), late other CLD, or controls without cholestasis or structural liver disease. Plasma Gal3 levels were measured by standard ELISA. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in a subset of samples using MSD Proinflammatory Panel 1 multiplex ELISA. Liver fibrosis was categorized as none (Ishak or METAVIR 0), mild (Ishak 1-2 or METAVIR 1), moderate (Ishak 3-4 or METAVIR 2-3), and severe (Ishak 5-6 or METAVIR 4) based on histology. Data are presented as median (IQR) and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearmans correlation was used to assess the relationship between Gal3 and clinical and inflammatory markers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Samples from 10 controls, 26 early BA, 24 late BA, 13 early other CLD, and 8 late other CLD patients were used for this study. Gal3 levels in late BA (20.8 [12.4-30.5] ng/mL) and late other CLD (21.8 [16.9 – 27.2] ng/mL) were significantly higher than in controls (10.2 [7.6 – 14.5] ng/mL, p < 0.02) and early BA (11.3 [8.7 – 16.8] ng/mL, p < 0.01), but not significantly different from early other CLD (15.7 [11.9 – 21.4] ng/mL, p > 0.05). Gal3 positively correlated with fibrosis score (rho 0.3, p = 0.01), total bilirubin (rho 0.3, p = 0.002), ALT (rho 0.3, p = 0.01), AST (rho 0.3, p = 0.005), and APRI score (rho 0.3, p = 0.009), and negatively correlated with albumin (rho -0.3, p = 0.01). Out of the 10 cytokine proinflammatory panel, Gal3 was significantly correlated with IL-6 (rho 0.3, p = 0.006). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Gal3 is elevated in late BA and other CLD at time of transplant and correlated with degree of fibrosis, suggesting it may play a role in disease progression to cirrhosis. If targeted in the early disease stage, blocking Gal3 in pediatric cholestatic liver diseases may help delay the progression to cirrhosis and need for transplant.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Recent studies indicate B cells are involved in dermal fibroblast activation and collagen deposition in the skin. However, B cell distribution in epidermal and dermal layers is unknown. Here, We aim to characterize the distribution of B cells residing in normal skin and keloidal scars. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: One abdominal normal skin sample and two keloid samples (ear and shoulder) were obtained from the University of Colorado Biorepository Core Facility and from the Plastic Surgery Clinics. Five micron sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were prepared for multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemistry by the Human Immunology & Immunotherapy Initiative. We stained for CD20+, CD19+, and DAPI. Slides were imaged using Vectra®3 scanning system from PerkinElmer. Images were analyzed in InForm®Tissue Finder, phenotpr, phenoptrReports by Akoya biosciences. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found a significant increase in the percentage of CD20+ and CD19+ B cells in keloid skin compared to normal skin tissue (14.50% and 14.20% vs 6.47% and 7.56% of the total cells), respectively. Interestingly, we found that in the epidermis of keloid skin CD20+ cell were more abundant (14.46%) whereas in the epidermis normal skin CD20+ cells were less predominant (5.14%). In the dermis of keloid skin, CD20+ and CD19+ were in equal proportions (13%) whereas in normal skin CD19+ cells were more predominant (10.44%) compared to CD20+ cells (7.04%). Dual positive B cells, CD19+/CD20+ cells, were more abundant in keloid dermis (11.06%) compared to normal skin dermis (1.24%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: B cells are involved in fibroblast activation in diseases such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis. With the increase of CD19+/CD20+ B cells in keloids, the role of B cells in keloid pathogenesis warrants further study. CD27 staining may determine if these are activated or follicular B cells.
Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) volcanic ash beds are widely distributed in South China and were proposed to have a connection with the PTB mass extinction and the assemblage of Pangea. However, their source and tectonic affinity have been highly debated. We present zircon U–Pb ages, trace-element and Hf isotopic data on three new-found PTB volcanic ash beds in the western Hubei area, South China. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U–Pb dating of zircons yields ages of 252.2 ± 3.6 Ma, 251.6 ± 4.9 Ma and 250.4 ± 2.4 Ma for these three volcanic ash beds. Zircons of age c. 240–270 Ma zircons have negative εHf(t) values (–18.17 to –3.91) and Mesoproterozoic–Palaeoproterozoic two-stage Hf model ages (THf2) (1.33–2.23 Ga). Integrated with other PTB ash beds in South China, zircon trace-element signatures and Hf isotopes indicate that they were likely sourced from intermediate to felsic volcanic centres along the Simao–Indochina convergent continental margin. The Qinling convergent continental margin might be another possible source but needs further investigation. Our data support the model that strong convergent margin volcanism took place around South China during late Permian – Early Triassic time, especially in the Simao–Indochina active continental margin and possibly the Qinling active continental margin. These volcanisms overlap temporally with the PTB biocrisis triggered by the Siberian Large Igneous Province. In addition, our data argue that the South China Craton and the Simao–Indochina block had not been amalgamated with the main body of Pangea by late Permian – Early Triassic time.
A new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/Bi7Ta3O18 was fabricated by photodeposition-hydrothermal method. The phase composition, microstructure, surface areas, average pore size, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, and photocatalytic activities of composite photocatalysts were investigated in detail. The results of the measurements indicated that the Ag0 nanoparticle successfully loads on the surface of Bi7Ta3O18, and the 0.06 Ag/Bi7Ta3O18 photocatalysts exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The improved photocatalytic activity could be contributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance caused by the collective oscillation of the surface electrons of Ag nanoparticles. Additionally, the photocatalytic reaction mechanism was studied by photoluminescence photocurrent, and electron spin resonance analysis. As a result, the Ag nanoparticles onto the Bi7Ta3O18 surface enlarged the electron–hole separation, and the (˙OH) was the dominated active species of degradation RhB in the photocatalytic process.
This paper presents a relatively simple numerical method to investigate the flow and heat transfer of laminar power-law fluids over a semi-infinite plate in the presence of viscous dissipation and anisotropy radiation. On one hand, unlike most classical works, the effects of power-law viscosity on velocity and temperature fields are taken into account when both the dynamic viscosity and the thermal diffusivity vary as a power-law function. On the other hand, boundary layer equations are derived by Taylor expansion, and a mixed analytical/numerical method (a pseudosimilarity method) is proposed to effectively solve the boundary layer equations. This method has been justified by comparing its results with those of the original governing equations obtained by a finite element method. These results agree very well especially when the Reynolds number is large. We also observe that the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm are better when thermal boundary layer is thinner than velocity boundary layer.
C3N4/Bi2WO6 heterojunction photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using consecutive hydrothermal and calcination processes. These photocatalysts were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence measurements. The results of these measurements indicated that the Bi2WO6 nanoparticles were approximately 30–50 nm and uniformly distributed on the surface of C3N4 lamellar structures. The 20% C3N4/Bi2WO6 displayed enhanced visible-light absorption from 432 nm to 468 nm. Photocatalytic tests also revealed that the 20% C3N4/Bi2WO6 photocatalyst exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to that of pure C3N4 and Bi2WO6 under irradiation by visible light (λ > 420 nm). Furthermore, the excellent photocatalytic efficiency of the 20% C3N4/Bi2WO6 photocatalyst was determined to be related to the formation of C3N4/Bi2WO6 heterojunctions, and their presence was found to be generally beneficial for the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.
Results from recent trials assessing the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prevention of childhood acute respiratory infections (ARI) have been inconsistent. In the present study, we determined whether vitamin D supplementation prevents ARI in healthy children and repeated infections in children with previous ARI. We conducted a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search included only randomised controlled clinical trials (RCT) comparing vitamin D supplementation with either placebo or no intervention in children younger than 18 years of age. We identified seven RCT and found that the summary estimates were not statistically significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of ARI (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·55, 1·13), all-cause mortality (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 0·71, 1·94), or the rate of hospital admission due to respiratory infection in healthy children (RR 0·95, 95 % CI 0·72, 1·26). However, in children previously diagnosed with asthma, vitamin D supplementation resulted in a 74 % reduction in the risk of asthma exacerbation (RR 0·26, 95 % CI 0·11, 0·59; test of heterogeneity, I2= 0·0 %). Our findings indicate a lack of evidence supporting the routine use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of ARI in healthy children; however, they suggest that such supplementation may benefit children previously diagnosed with asthma. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies and possible publication biases related to this field, these results should be interpreted with caution.
Objective: To determine the adequacy of pharmacotherapy received by patients with newly-diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), based on current practice guidelines.
Methods: A 9 year (1997–2006) retrospective claims analysis of adults enrolled in Florida Medicaid for at least 3 continuous years was conducted to determine the percentage who received both a minimally effective duration (≥ 8 continuous weeks) and dose of first-line OCD pharmacotherapy during the year following their first (“index”) OCD diagnosis.
Results: Among 2,960,421 adult (≥ 18 years of age) enrollees, 2,921 (0.1%) were diagnosed with OCD. Among the 2,825 OCD patients without comorbid Asperger syndrome or autism, 843 had newly-diagnosed OCD and at least 12 months of follow-up data after their index diagnosis. Among these 843 patients, 588 (69.7%) received first-line OCD pharmacotherapy but only 323 (38.3%) received a minimally effective pharmacotherapy trial in the year following their index diagnosis.
Conclusions: Among clinically-diagnosed persons with OCD (<10% of those with the disorder), a minority of newly-diagnosed patients receive a minimally effective pharmacotherapy trial consistent with current standards of care. Reasons such as limited patient adherence and/or physician awareness of guidelines must be identified and redressed to ameliorate the patient, healthcare system, and economic burdens associated with OCD.
A new numerical method based on locally modified Cartesian meshes is proposed for solving a coupled system of a fluid flow and a porous media flow. The fluid flow is modeled by the Stokes equations while the porous media flow is modeled by Darcy's law. The method is based on a Robin-Robin domain decomposition method with a Cartesian mesh with local modifications near the interface. Some computational examples are presented and discussed.
Blue-ice areas (BIAs) and their geographical distribution in Antarctica were mapped using Landsat-7 ETM+ images with 15 m spatial resolution obtained during the 1999–2003 austral summers and covering the area north of 82.5° S, and a snow grain-size image of the MODIS-based Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) dataset with 125 m grid spacing acquired during the 2003/04 austral summer from 82.5°S to the South Pole. A map of BIAs was created with algorithms of thresholds based on band ratio and reflectance for ETM+ data and thresholds based on snow grain size for the MOA dataset. The underlying principle is that blue ice can be separated from snow or rock by their spectral discrepancies and by different grain sizes of snow and ice. We estimate the total area of BIAs in Antarctica during the data acquisition period is 234 549 km2, or 1.67% of the area of the continent. Blue ice is scattered widely over the continent but is generally located in coastal or mountainous regions. The BIA dataset presented in this study is the first map covering the entire Antarctic continent sourced solely from ETM+ and MODIS data. This dataset can potentially benefit other studies in glaciology, meteorology, climatology and paleoclimate, meteorite collection and airstrip site selection.
At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical observatories. The Gattini Dome A project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fisheye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R) and a long-pass red filter for the detection and monitoring of airglow emission. The system operated continuously throughout the 2009, and 2011 winter seasons and part-way through the 2010 season, recording long exposure images sequentially for each filter. We have in hand one complete winter-time dataset (2009) returned via a manned traverse. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric V band, cloud cover statistics measured so far and an estimate of the extinction.
HRCAM (High Resolution CAMera) is a Canon 50D 15-megapixel digital SLR camera equipped with a Sigma 4.5 mm f/2.8 fish-eye lens. It was installed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau in January 2010 and photographs the sky every 15 minutes. Primarily functioning as a site-testing instrument, data obtained from HRCAM provide valuable statistics on cloud cover, sky transparency and the distribution and frequency of auroral activity. We present a first look at data from HRCAM during 2010, including an overview of how we intend to reduce the images. We also demonstrate the potential of stellar photometry by using linear combinations of the in-built Canon RGB filters to convert instrumental magnitudes into the photometric BVR bands.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
Despite the absence of artificial light pollution at Antarctic plateau sites such as Dome A, other factors such as airglow, aurorae and extended periods of twilight have the potential to adversely affect optical observations. We present a statistical analysis of the airglow and aurorae at Dome A using spectroscopic data from Nigel, an optical/near-IR spectrometer operating in the 300–850 nm range. The median auroral contribution to the B, V and R photometric bands is found to be 22.9, 23.4 and 23.0 mag arcsec−2 respectively. We are also able to quantify the amount of annual dark time available as a function of wavelength; on average twilight ends when the Sun reaches a zenith distance of 102.6°.
Lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) ferroelectric thin films were fabricated by the RF magnetron sputtering system on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the PLT films showed that the pure perovskite structure was formed in the PLT thin films. The Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) was used for determining the domain structure of these films. It was found that the 90 degree domain was the main domain structure of PLT thin films. It was found that the PLT films prepared by RF sputtering have relatively large pyroelectric coefficient γ=2.20×10-8C·(cm2·K)-1 and relatively high figures of merit for current responsivity, voltage responsivity and specific detectivity.
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