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This study assessed the molecular mechanism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protection against IPEC-1 cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA+DON group, and the DHA+DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+, and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.
Natural enemies that impact pest populations must be understood in order to build integrated pest control strategies and to understand the most important aspects affecting pest dynamics. Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge is an important perennial plant species extensively used in sand stabilization and wind prevention in arid areas. This study aimed to determine the main defoliators that damage H. ammodendron and the parasitoid complex associated with them. Twelve species of defoliators were found in Northern Xinjiang, and Teia dubia (Tauscher) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), Scrobipalpa sp. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Eucharia festiva Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) were the dominant pests. T. dubia is the predominant defoliator with three generations a year. Northwest China, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean region are potentially suitable habitats for T. dubia in the world, while Xinjiang is the primary distribution area in China. Parasitoids belonging to seven species and four families were reared from the larvae of T. dubia, they were all endoparasitoids and koinobiont. Cotesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the dominant parasitoid and prefer to parasitic in the 3rd–5th instar larvae. The present study provides the basis for understanding the species composition and natural enemies of lepidopteran defoliators. It will be an effective tool for the integrated pest management programs of H. ammodendron forest.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.
In December 2019, an outbreak of an unknown cause of pneumonia [later named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] occurred in Wuhan, China. This was found to be attributed to a novel coronavirus of zoonotic origin, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV). The SARS-CoV-2, a new type of highly pathogenic human coronavirus related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), spread rapidly worldwide and caused 53,164,803 confirmed infections, including 1,300,576 deaths, by November 13, 2020 (globally, 206,196,367 cases and 4,345,424 deaths as of August 13, 2021). SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV vary in their specific characteristics, regarding epidemics and pathogenesis. This article focuses on the comparison of the virology, epidemiology, and clinical features of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 to reveal their common and distinct properties, to provide an up-to-date resource for the development of advanced systems and strategies to monitor and control future epidemics of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI.
The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 hours after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model.
A total of 15,066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After PSM, 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.49-0.87; P < 0.001) and 90-day mortality (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.45-0.74; P < 0.001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.17-1.36; P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stage 1 to 2 AKI.
Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stage 1 to 2 AKI according to the KDIGO criteria.
The Jueluotage area, which is located in the southern branch of the Eastern Tianshan and northeast of the Tarim Basin, represents a vital locality for investigating intracontinental reactivation induced by the tectonic events at the Eurasian plate margin. This study applies zircon and apatite (U–Th)/He and apatite fission-track thermochronology to the Jueluotage area in the Eastern Tianshan. Our data and thermal history modelling show that the Jueluotage area experienced Triassic–Early Jurassic (˜240–180 Ma) cooling, reflecting the closure of the North Tianshan Ocean and subsequent far-field effects of collision/accretion of the Qiangtang Block and Kunlun terrane. Following this period of fast cooling, a differential exhumation process occurred between the various tectonic belts in the Jueluotage area. The Aqishan–Yamansu belt was exposed at the surface during the Triassic–Early Jurassic cooling phase and experienced subsequent burial, which continued until Early Cretaceous time when a pulse of exhumation occurred. However, the major fault zones (Kanggurtag ductile shear zone and Aqikkuduk Fault) and Central Tianshan arc have remained tectonically stable since Early Jurassic time. No Cenozoic rapid cooling was recorded by the low-temperature thermochronology results in this study, indicating that much of the Jueluotage area was exhumed to the upper crust in the late Mesozoic period.
The significance of spiritual care needs among chronic diseases patients has been emphasized across countries and cultures in many studies. However, there were few studies on spiritual care needs among elderly patients with moderate-to-severe chronic heart failure (CHF) in China.
To investigate spiritual care needs and associated influencing factors among elderly patients with moderate-to-severe CHF, and to examine the relationships among spiritual care needs, self-perceived burden, symptom management self-efficacy, and perceived social support.
A cross-sectional design was implemented, and the STROBE Checklist was used to report the study. A convenience sample of 474 elderly patients with moderate-to-severe CHF were selected from seven hospitals in Tianjin, China. The sociodemographic characteristics questionnaire, the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire Scale, the Self-Perceived Burden Scale, the Self-efficacy for Symptom Management Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale were used. Descriptive statistics, univariate, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation analysis were used to analyze data.
The total score of spiritual care needs among 474 elderly patients with moderate-to-severe CHF was 37.95 ± 14.71, which was moderate. Religious belief, educational background, self-perceived burden, symptom management self-efficacy, and perceived social support were the main factors affecting spiritual care needs, and spiritual care needs were negatively correlated with self-perceived burden (r = −0.637, p < 0.01) and positively correlated with symptom management self-efficacy (r = 0.802, p < 0.01) and social support (r = 0.717, p < 0.01).
Significance of results
The spiritual care needs of elderly patients with moderate-to-severe CHF were moderate, which were influenced by five factors. It is suggested that clinical nurses, families, and society should take targeted spiritual care measures to improve patients’ symptom management self-efficacy and perceived social support from many aspects, and reduce self-perceived burden to meet their spiritual care needs and improve the quality and satisfaction of spiritual care in nursing practice.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case-control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a 78-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose-response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs of the highest quartile were 0.45 (95%CI: 0.29-0.71, Ptrend = 0.001) for VD dietary intake and 0.26 (95%CI: 0.11-0.60, Ptrend = 0.003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0.02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0.02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
The origins of metal coinage and the monetisation of ancient economies have long been a research focus in both archaeology and economic history. Recent excavations of an Eastern Zhou period (c. 770–220 BC) bronze foundry at Guanzhuang in Henan Province, China, have yielded clay moulds for casting spade coins. The technical characteristics of the moulds demonstrate that the site functioned as a mint for producing standardised coins. Systematic AMS radiocarbon-dating indicates that well-organised minting developed c. 640–550 BC, making Guanzhuang the world's oldest-known, securely dated minting site. This discovery provides important new data for exploring the origin of monetisation in ancient China.
Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.
We aimed to evaluate the association between coffee and/or tea consumption and breast cancer (BC) risk among premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to conduct a network meta-analysis.
Systematic review and network meta-analysis.
We conducted a systematic review of electronic publications in the last 30 years to identify case–control studies or prospective cohort studies that evaluated the effects of coffee and tea intake.
Forty-five studies that included more than 3 323 288 participants were eligible for analysis. Network meta-analysis was performed to determine the effects of coffee and/or tea consumption on reducing BC risk in a dose-dependent manner and differences in coffee/tea type, menopause status, hormone receptor and the BMI in subgroup and meta-regression analyses. According to the first pairwise meta-analysis, low-dose coffee intake and high-dose tea intake may exhibit efficacy in preventing ER(estrogen receptor)− BC, particularly in postmenopausal women. Then, we performed another pairwise and network meta-analysis and determined that the recommended daily doses were 2–3 cups/d of coffee or ≥5 cups/d of tea, which contained a high concentration of caffeine, particularly in postmenopausal women.
Coffee and tea consumption is not associated with a reduction in the overall BC risk in postmenopausal women and is associated with a potentially lower risk of ER− BC. And the highest recommended dose is 2–3 cups of coffee/d or ≥5 cups of tea/d. They are potentially useful dietary protectants for preventing BC.
The particle–particle (PP) model has a growing number of applications in plasma simulations, because of its high accuracy of solving Coulomb collisions. One of the main issues restricting the practical use of the PP model is its large computational cost, which is now becoming acceptable thanks to state-of-art parallel computing techniques. Another issue is the singularity that occurs when two particles are too close. The most effective approach of avoiding the singularity would be to simulate particles with only like charges plus a neutralizing field, such that the short-range collisions are equivalent to those of using unlike charges. In this paper, we introduce a way of adding the neutralizing field by using the analytical solution of the electric field in the domain filled with uniformly distributed charges, for applications with homogeneous and quasi-neutral plasmas under a reflective boundary condition. Two most common Cartesian domain geometries, cubic and spherical, are considered. The model is verified by comparing simulation results with an analytical solution of an electron–ion temperature relaxation problem, and a corresponding simulation using unlike charges. In addition, it is found that a PP simulation using like charges can achieve a significant speed-up of 100 compared with a corresponding simulation using unlike charges, due to the capability of using larger time steps while maintaining the same energy conservation.
Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder that needs treatment based on extensive experience. Antipsychotic drugs have already become the cornerstone of the treatment for schizophrenia; however, the therapeutic effect is of significant variability among patients, and only around a third of patients with schizophrenia show good efficacy. Meanwhile, drug-induced metabolic syndrome and other side-effects significantly affect treatment adherence and prognosis. Therefore, strategies for drug selection are desperately needed. In this study, we will perform pharmacogenomics research and set up an individualised preferred treatment prediction model.
We aim to create a standard clinical cohort, with multidimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia.
This trial is designed as a randomised clinical trial comparing treatment with different kinds of antipsychotics. A total sample of 2000 patients with schizophrenia will be recruited from in-patient units from five clinical research centres. Using a computer-generated program, the participants will be randomly assigned to four treatment groups: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia, which reflects the efficacy. Secondary outcomes include the measure of side-effects, such as metabolic syndromes. The efficacy evaluation and side-effects assessment will be performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months.
This trial will assess the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotics and create a standard clinical cohort with a multi-dimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia patients.
This study aims to set up an individualized preferred treatment prediction model through the genetic analysis of patients using different kinds of antipsychotics.
This study aims to investigate the pathogenic gene variant in a family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by using whole-exome sequencing and to explore the relationship between the gene variant and clinical phenotype.
Peripheral blood was collected from a family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. The possible pathogenic genes were detected by whole-exome sequencing, and the variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. Functional change in the variant was predicted by bioinformatics software. Clinical data of the family members are analysed simultaneously.
The proband carries a novel heterozygous nonsense variant of MYBPC3:c.2731G > T (p.E911X). The analysis of amino acid conservation suggests that the variation is highly conserved. The three-dimensional protein structure shows that the variant in MYBPC3 results in the incompleteness of the fibronectintype-III2 (p872–967) domain and deletion of Ig-like C2-type 6 (p971–1065) and fibronectin type-III 3 and Ig-like C2-type 7 (p1181–1274) domains, in which p1253–1268 is predicted to have a transmembrane helix structure. Clinical data indicate that the phenotypes of variant carriers with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are diverse, suggesting the functional damages to the protein of MYBPC3.
The phenotypes of variant carriers with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by the novel variant in MYBPC3: c.2731G > T (p.E911X) exhibit variable severity and clinical manifestations. Whole-exome sequencing can be used to comprehensive screen hypertrophic cardiomyopathy genes and provide a strong basis for early screening and accurate diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in children.
The density–depth relationship of the Antarctic ice sheet is important for establishing a high-precision surface mass balance model and predicting future ice-sheet contributions to global sea levels. A new algorithm is used to reconstruct firn density and densification rate by inverting monostatic radio wave echoes from ground-operated frequency-modulated continuous wave radar data collected near four ice cores along the transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A. The inverted density profile is consistent with the core data within 5.54% root mean square error. Due to snow redistribution, the densification rate within 88 km of ice core DT401 is correlated with the accumulation rate and varies greatly over horizontal distances of <5 km. That is, the depth at which a critical density of 830 kg m−3 is reached decreases and densification rate increases in high-accumulation regions but decreases in low-accumulation regions. This inversion technique can be used to analyse more Antarctic radar data and obtain the density distribution trend, which can improve the accuracy of mass-balance estimations.