To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rise of the land revenue regime in China, characterized by land dispossession in the countryside and land redevelopment in the city, has sparked numerous protests. This study draws attention to the paradox that the regime has helped to mitigate labour unrest, at least temporarily, in China's Rustbelt, where millions of workers were laid-off in the 1990s. Based on field research in Anshan, Liaoning province, and data from other cities in the Rustbelt, this article shows that laid-off workers’ protests persisted much longer than previously thought, largely owing to a lack of local fiscal resources to meet workers’ demands. Only with the growing revenue from land sales in the recent decade has the local government finally been able to ease the tension with laid-off workers. The article argues that bargained authoritarianism, or “buying stability,” widely considered to be an effective strategy by the local state to control social unrest, has its limits, mainly owing to its dependence on local fiscal resources. Recent economic downturns and declining land revenue will disrupt this strategy, leading to protracted protests and struggles in future.
This paper proposes a method for self-calibrating the star sensor on the Mars rover considering several years of exploration on the surface of Mars. The natural stars in the night sky are considered the control points, and a self-calibration model is deduced in detail according to an imaging model. An adaptive celestial positioning (ACP) algorithm is then introduced, and the calculation procedure is presented in detail to realise self-adjustment based on the self-calibration of the star sensor. Three field tests were conducted on Earth, the results of which show good self-calibration and celestial positioning performances. The positioning results indicate an obvious accuracy improvement using the ACP algorithm compared with that without calibration. Multiple positionings in one night can improve the celestial positioning accuracy to approximately 15 m. For future studies, this self-calibration model will be useful not only for star sensors but also for other optical sensors, such as sun sensors and binocular or stereo-vision cameras.
More than 50% patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have severe functional impairment. The restoration of patient functioning is a critical therapeutic goal among patients with MDD. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatments on self-rated functional outcomes using the Sheehan Disability Scale in adults with MDD in randomized clinical trials.
PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to December 10, 2019. Summary statistics are reported as weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Interventions were ranked using the surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities.
We included 42 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 18 998) evaluating the efficacy of 13 different pharmacological treatments on functional outcomes, as measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Duloxetine was the most effective pharmacological agent on functional outcomes, followed by (ranked by efficacy): paroxetine, levomilnacipran, venlafaxine, quetiapine, desvenlafaxine, agomelatine, escitalopram, amitriptyline, bupropion, sertraline, vortioxetine, and fluoxetine. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were more effective than other drug classes. Additionally, the comparison-adjusted funnel plot suggested the publication bias between small and large studies was relatively low.
Our results indicate that there may be differences across antidepressant agents and classes with respect to self-reported functional outcomes. Validation and replication of these findings in large-scale RCTs are warranted. Our research results will be clinically useful for guiding psychiatrists in treating patients with MDD and functional impairment. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018116663.
Candida meningitis in neurosurgical patients is relatively unusual but is associated with a high mortality rate. We present our experience with this infection and discuss the clinical characteristics, treatment options and outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed neurosurgical patients with multiple positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2019. Nine patients were available for review according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Four species of Candida were isolated from the CSF samples and Candida albicans accounted for half of all infections. Eight infections were associated with ventricle peritoneal shunt, lumbar cistern peritoneal shunt or external ventricular drain. All of these foreign intracranial materials were removed or changed and all the patients received antifungal treatment, including fluconazole and/or voriconazole. It is associated with severe long-term outcomes in survivors and a mortality rate that reaches 11.1%. Prior treatments with broad-spectrum and high-grade antibiotics and anaemia are possible risk factors for Candida meningitis. We advise that foreign intracranial material should be removed or changed as early as possible and the timing of re-shunt operation can be 1 month after control of Candida meningitis has been achieved, with several negative CSF culture results.
This work designed a facile preparation for an SiO2/C composite as the anode material for lithium ion battery. Both SiO2 and carbon are amorphous. SiO2 and carbon are mixed uniformly. The SiO2/C composite shows high specific capacity, cycle stability, and rate capability in lithium ion battery charge–discharge test. A stable reversible capacity of 1024 mA h/g at the current density of 100 mA/g is reached. The capacity retains 83% after 100 cycles. The uniform mixture of SiO2 and carbon leads to reduced volume change during the lithiation and delithiation of SiO2, together with the amorphous nature of SiO2 explains the high cycling stability. The carbon coating is a key factor for the high capacity and stability due to the increased electrical conductivity and reduced volume change. The resistance of the solid electrolyte interface film and charge transfer resistance of the SiO2/C composite are much smaller than those of pure carbon, which is a direct proof of the improved conductivity of the material by the carbon coating.
Researches have suggested Mediterranean diet might lower the risk of chronic diseases, but data on skeletal muscle mass (SMM) are limited. This community-based cross-sectional study examined the association between the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMDS) and SMM in 2230 females and 1059 males aged 40–75 years in Guangzhou, China. General information and habitual dietary information were assessed in face-to-face interviews conducted during 2008–2010 and 3 years later. The aMDS was calculated by summing the dichotomous points for the items of higher intakes of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish and ratio of MUFA:SFA, lower red meat and moderate ethanol consumption. The SMM of the whole body, limbs, arms and legs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during 2011–2013. After adjusting for potential covariates, higher aMDS was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, SMM/height2, kg/m2) at all of the studied sites in males (all Ptrend<0·05). The multiple covariate-adjusted SMI means were 2·70 % (whole body), 2·65 % (limbs), 2·50 % (arms) and 2·70 % (legs) higher in the high (v. low) category aMDS in males (all P<0·05). In females, the corresponding values were 1·35 % (Ptrend=0·03), 1·05, 0·52 and 1·20 %, (Ptrend>0·05). Age-stratified analyses showed that the favourable associations tended to be more pronounced in the younger subjects aged less than the medians of 59·2 and 62·2 years in females and males (Pinteraction>0·10). In conclusion, the aMDS shows protective associations with SMM in Chinese adults, particularly in male and younger subjects.
The thermal properties of organic membranes attract much attention due to the fact that heat dissipation in electronic devices limits their functionality and reliability. Here, we enhance the thermal conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane using nano-fibers fabricated by electrospinning. Measured by the 3-Omega method, the results show that the effective thermal conductivity of the electrospinning membranes (with/without Cu nanoparticles) are as high as 0.7 W/m-K at room temperature which is as twice as the value of thermal conductivity of amorphous spin-coated PVA membrane (0.35 W/m-K). The mechanism of enhancement are that, compared with amorphous membrane, the phonon scattering is attenuated and the crystallinity is improved in the electrospinning process. Our studies bring new insights in designing new kind of membrane with high thermal conductivity.
In the near future, the inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is expected to become available on the market in China. Since EV71 is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), the vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the number of cases, as well as the detrimental economic effect of the disease. However, for a national vaccination strategy to be developed, policy-makers need more information on the socioeconomic burden of EV71 HFMD infection. Based on the 2011 population data, we estimated the clinical and economic effect of EV71 HFMD infection in children aged 0–9 years in Shanghai, China. The annual cost related to HFMD is >US$7.66 million for a population of 1·42 million children aged 0–9 years with an average cost of US$208.2/case. The extrapolated cost for EV71 HFMD infection was US$3.53 million, comprising 46·1% of the overall cost associated with HFMD. Around 97% of all of the HFMD-related expenses were paid for by the families creating a considerable economic burden. Our findings could provide the necessary recommendations on the most effective national EV71 vaccine implementation, as well as a baseline data for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in China.
Deploying resistant cultivars is an economical and essential management method in controlling viral diseases, and there are several mutational resources for tobacco. In the present study, the inoculation of tobacco plants with tobacco viruses was performed in a greenhouse from 2011 to 2014 to identify mutants resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The high-throughput screening included seeding uniformly, transplanting in seedbeds, inoculating by cloth brushes and reporting symptoms based on disease indices. A total of 4000 second generation segregating (M2) mutants of tobacco cultivar Zhongyan100 were screened. Seeds from highly resistant mutant M2 plants were selected and planted separately. The M3 were grown and mutational stability was measured. For TMV, ten highly resistant plants were selected in the M2 generation and the mutation rate was 0·012%. In the M3 generation, there were seven mutants with hereditary high resistance and, according to the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction, the N gene was detected in all seven M3. Two hereditary immune M4 mutants, one of which was a male sterile line, were identified and evaluated in the glasshouse and in the field. For CMV, seven highly resistant plants were selected from the M2 generation and the mutation rate was 0·009%. In the M3 generation, there was one mutant with hereditary high resistance. The results indicate that hereditary mutants may be identified in the M4 generation and back-crossed to wild-type Zhongyan100 to identify anti-viral genes.
This paper addresses a joint pricing and inventory control problem for a batch production system with random leadtimes. Assume that demand arrives according to a Poisson process with a price-dependent arrival rate. Each replenishment order contains a single batch of a fixed lot size. The replenishment leadtime follows an Erlang distribution, with the number of completed phases recording the delivery state of outstanding orders. The objective is to determine an optimal inventory-pricing policy that maximizes total expected discounted profit or long-run average profit. We first show that when there is at most one order outstanding at any point in time and that excess demand is lost, the optimal reorder policy can be characterized by a critical stock level and the optimal pricing decision is decreasing in the inventory level and delivery state. We then extend the analysis to mixed-Erlang leadtime distribution which can be used to approximate any random leadtime to any degree of accuracy. We further extend the analysis to allowing three outstanding orders where the optimal reorder point becomes state-dependent: the closer an outstanding order is to its arrival or the more orders are outstanding, the lower selling price is charged and the lower reorder point is chosen. Finally, we address the backlog case and show that the monotone pricing structure may not be true when the optimal reorder point is negative.
As a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, Salecan has an excellent toxicological profile and exerts multiple physiological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of a Salecan diet in the well-defined dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of experimental murine colitis and to elucidate the mechanism involved in its effects with special attention being paid to its effect on the production of TNF-α, a primary mediator involved in the inflammatory response. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet supplemented with either 4 or 8 % Salecan for 26 d and DSS was administered to induce acute colitis during the last 5 d of the experimental period. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α and Dectin-1 were evaluated. The results indicated that the dietary incorporation of Salecan attenuated the severity of DSS colitis as evidenced by the decreased disease activity index, reduced severity of anaemia, attenuated changes in colon architecture and reduced colonic myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with the down-regulation of TNF-α mRNA levels, which might derive from its ability to increase Dectin-1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Salecan contributes to the reduction of colonic damage and inflammation in mice with DSS-induced colitis and holds promise as a new, effective nutritional supplement in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.
The distribution of marine-influenced oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 5 to OIS 1 sediments was examined in several late Quaternary boreholes from the southern Changjiang (Yangtze) delta plain, China, using different dating methods including OSL, U-series, AMS 14C and paleomagnetism. Results demonstrate that coastal and estuarine deposition during OIS 5 and OIS 3 occurred throughout the study area. However, Holocene transgressive sediments were absent on the Taihu block. The burial depth of intertidal to subtidal sediment deposited during OIS 5e records 30–80 m subsidence caused by sediment compaction and tectonic movement since that time. However, coastal sediments formed during the late phase of OIS 3 were buried to a depth of ca. 6–15 m in the Taihu Lake area, while the burial depth increased eastward to ca. 45–60 m on the coastal plain. This phenomenon, combined with the distribution of Holocene marine strata, indicates at least 25–30 m uplift of the Taihu block since the end of OIS 3. We suggest that this uplift was mainly caused by the differential subsidence due to substantial amount of post-glacial deposition by the Changjiang and Huanghe Rivers on the continental shelf of east China marginal sea.
We assessed whether age modified the association between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) anterior nares colonization and subsequent infection. Among 7,405 patients (9,511 admissions), MRSA colonization was significantly associated with infection (adjusted odds ratio, 13.7 [95% confidence interval, 7.325.7]) but did not differ significantly by age group.
Background: Though multiple policies have been implemented, the cigarette control in China is still facing a great challenge. At the same time, alcohol drinking has increasingly become a public health problem. Considering cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking often co-occur, a few studies tested the covariance of these phenotypes. However, the genetic and environmental correlation between them among Chinese population has not been determined. The main aim of this study is to fill this gap. Methods: From the Chinese National Twin Registry, we obtained the data on cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors. The ordinal bivariate genetic analysis was performed to fit the categorical variables. After identifying the best decomposition among the Cholesky, common, and independent pathway model, we established the most parsimonious submodel. Results: The correlation between current tobacco and alcohol use could be explained by Cholesky model. The shared environmental variances for both phenotypes were dropped to construct the most parsimonious submodel. Furthermore, the most parsimonious submodel showed a moderate correlation (0.32, 95%CI = 0.17 – 0.46) between the genetic components and a negligible non-shared environmental correlation. Conclusion: As the first bivariate genetic analysis on current tobacco smoking and current alcohol drinking in China, this study suggested a common genetic vulnerability to tobacco and alcohol use in male twins. Further studies should be carried out to track the pertinent genes that are related to the comorbidity of smoking and drinking in Chinese population. Another urgent need is to recognize the behavior-specific environmental risk factors.
There is high scientific and technological interest to develop photocatalytic coatings on stainless steels surface to remove fouling under light radiation. In this study, a novel method is described to prepare photocleanable stainless steel by anodization to form aligned nanopore arrays (NPAs) on the surface in ethylene glycol containing perchloric acid. Perchloric acid concentration, applied voltage and anodization time of anodization process were investigated. The NPAs are mainly composed of iron (III) oxide and chromium (III) oxide. This photocleanable stainless steel has remarkable visible-light photocatalytic activities, which show potential applications particularly for outdoor purpose. Moreover, the stainless steel surface remains highly polished and exhibits good corrosion resistance after anodization.
We investigate the interfacial electronic structures of the heterojunction Fe/pentacene/Fe on Cu(100) substrate, using synchrotron-based photoemission spectroscopy. No chemical reaction is observed at either Fe/pentacene or pentacene/Fe interface. The hole injection barrier was estimated to be about 0.95 eV between pentacene and under the Fe thin film. C K-edge NEXAFS revealed that the long axis of pentacene molecule was almost perpendicular to the surface plane. With increasing Fe thickness deposited on pentacene film, the pentacene's HOMO shifts to higher binding energy whereas the C 1s binding energy showed an interesting unusual behaviour due to the initial band bending gradually suppressed by the increasing core-hole screening effect.