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The biocompatibility of an implant material depends on the bulk physical properties in addition to the surface properties. In biomedical engineering and industry Ti and Ti-alloys are very popular biological implant material for their bulk physical properties and strength to weight ratio resembling those of nature bone. It is possible to modify the surface properties of titanium for enhanced surface biocompatibility. The main objective of the this study is to engineer a smart Ti-based prosthesis surface by self induced chemically modified titanium oxide nano-film by the chemical mechanical polishing process (CMP). This new process applied on bio-implants aims at significantly reducing the out-diffusion of Ti and other metallic impurities from prosthesis in contact with body fluids and tissue and simultaneously enhancing the surface mechanical, chemical and biological properties. CMP technique enables the growth of a thicker and denser self-protective native oxide on Ti and Ti alloy samples, while simultaneously inducing a controlled surface roughness. It is demonstrated that the Ti based dental implants with self-protective oxide induced surfaces help minimize chemical and bacterial reactivity in addition to Ti ion dissolution while promoting their biocompatibility through surface patterning. The studied self-protective oxide films can also be utilized for many additional applications including bio-sensors.
Metal CMP applications necessitate the formation of a protective oxide film in the presence of surface active agents, oxidizers, pH regulators and other chemicals to achieve global planarization. Formation and mechanical properties of the chemically modified metal oxide thin films in CMP determine the stresses develop at the interfaces delineating the stability and protective nature of the chemically altered films on the surface of the metal wafer. The balance between the stresses built in the film structure versus the mechanical actions provided during the process can be used to optimize the process variables and furthermore help define new planarization techniques for the next generation microelectronic device manufacturing. In this study, the preliminary studies were concentrated on the very well established tungsten CMP applications and furthermore, titanium CMP applications were presented as a part of surface nano-structuring methodology for biomedical applications by stressing the synergistic effect of protective metal oxide film of titanium in this advanced application.
Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is widely used to ensure planarity of metal and dielectric surfaces to enable photolithography and hence multilevel metallization in microelectronics manufacturing. The aim of this study is to establish a fundamental understanding on the dynamic growth of nano-scale protective oxide thin films during CMP to enable the selection of proper oxidizer concentrations for slurry formulations. Tungsten was selected as the model metal film to study the formation of these metal oxide films in various oxidizers and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was used to measure the surface roughness of the samples conditioned in the oxidizer environment before and after the CMP was conducted. The affect of surface roughness on wettability of the surfaces were also studied through contact angle measurements on the treated tungsten films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR/ATR technique in combination with the X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) were utilized to determine the thicknesses of the oxidized nano films on the tungsten surface. The results were evaluated through the material removal responses reported in the literature for the W-CMP in addition to the comparison of the Pilling-Bedworth ratios of the oxidized nano films to determine the ability of the created oxide film as a self-protective oxide.
Biomaterials are widely used for dental implants, orthopedic devices, cardiac pacemakers and catheters. One of the main concerns on using bio-implants is the risk of infection on the materials used. In this study, our aim is to quantify the effect of controlled surface roughness on the infection resistance of the titanium based bio-materials which are commonly used for orthopedic devices and dental implants. To modify the surface roughness of the surfaces in a controlled manner, Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) technique, which is extensively used in semiconductor industry for the planarization of the interlayer dielectrics and metals, is utilized. To determine the infection resistance of the created films with varying surface roughness, bacteria growth response was studied on titanium plates after CMP.
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