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While shared clinical decision-making (SDM) is the preferred approach to decision-making in mental health care, its implementation in everyday clinical practice is still insufficient. The European Psychiatric Association undertook a study aiming to gather data on the clinical decision-making style preferences of psychiatrists working in Europe.
We conducted a cross-sectional online survey involving a sample of 751 psychiatrists and psychiatry specialist trainees from 38 European countries in 2021, using the Clinical Decision-Making Style – Staff questionnaire and a set of questions regarding clinicians’ expertise, training, and practice.
SDM was the preferred decision-making style across all European regions ([central and eastern Europe, CEE], northern and western Europe [NWE], and southern Europe [SE]), with an average of 73% of clinical decisions being rated as SDM. However, we found significant differences in non-SDM decision-making styles: participants working in NWE countries more often prefer shared and active decision-making styles rather than passive styles when compared to other European regions, especially to the CEE. Additionally, psychiatry specialist trainees (compared to psychiatrists), those working mainly with outpatients (compared to those working mainly with inpatients) and those working in community mental health services/public services (compared to mixed and private settings) have a significantly lower preference for passive decision-making style.
The preferences for SDM styles among European psychiatrists are generally similar. However, the identified differences in the preferences for non-SDM styles across the regions call for more dialogue and educational efforts to harmonize practice across Europe.
We analyzed the association of cannabinoid receptor CNR1 genotypes with changes in neurocognitive performance in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) after 18 months of treatment. Our secondary aim was to analyze the association of CNR1 genotypes with changes of perceived levels of stress.
We enrolled a sample of 159 patients with FEP from two Croatian psychiatric hospitals between 2014 and 2017. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 18 months. We analyzed the associations of changes in neurocognitive test results and the perceived levels of stress with CNR1 polymorphic loci (rs7766029 and rs12720071) in 121 patients.
In the analysis adjusted only for baseline neurocognitive test scores, carriers of rs7766029 CC genotype had significantly (with false discovery rate, FDR < 15%) higher improvement in verbal memory (Wechsler, Wechsler 30′) and attention (Digit span F) compared with other participants. In such analysis, rs12720071 carriers of AG genotype had significantly (FDR < 15%) higher improvement in executive functions (Block design), but lower improvement in language functions than AA carriers. In the fully adjusted analysis for age, sex, cannabis use and negative symptoms, only the association of rs7766029 genotypes with the change in the Weschler 30′ score was significant (FDR < 15%). In the analysis adjusted only for the baseline neurocognitive tests’ scores, both rs7766029 and rs12720071 genotypes were significantly associated with the change in perceived levels of stress (FDR < 15%). In the fully adjusted analysis, only the association with rs7766029 genotype remained significant.
The rs7766029 CNR1 variants may moderate changes in neurocognitive performance as well as in perceived levels of stress of patients with FEP over time.
Objectives: The aim of our study was to assess the differences in facial emotional recognition (FER) between patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), patients with multi-episode schizophrenia (SCH), and healthy controls (HC) and to find possible correlations of FER with psychopathology in the two patient groups. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling 160 patients from two psychiatric hospitals in Croatia (80 FEP and 80 SCH) and 80 HC during the period from October 2015 until October 2017. Patients were assessed once during their hospital treatment, using the Penn Emotion Recognition Task for assessment of FER, rating scales for psychopathology and depression and self-reporting questionnaires for impulsiveness, aggression, and quality of life. Results: The number of correctly identified emotions significantly decreased from HC to FEP [Δ −7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) [−12% to −3%], effect size r = 0.30] and more markedly in SCH (Δ −15%; 95% CI [−25% to −10%], effect size r = 0.59) after the adjustment for age and gender and correction for multiple testing. Correct FER for negative emotions, but not for happiness and neutral emotions, had a statistically significant negative correlation with some features on the scales of psychopathology, impulsivity and aggression in both patient groups. Conclusions: Impairment of FER is present from the first episode of schizophrenia and increases further with multiple psychotic episodes, but it may depend on or contribute to clinical symptoms. Therefore, assessment of FER should be included in the clinical assessment and integrated in the plan of treatment from the beginning of the illness. (JINS, 2019, 25, 165–173)
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