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Our previous studies have suggested that spastin, which aggregates on spindle microtubules in oocytes, may promote the assembly of mouse oocyte spindles by cutting microtubules. This action may be related to CRMP5, as knocking down CRMP5 results in reduced spindle microtubule density and maturation defects in oocytes. In this study, we found that, after knocking down CRMP5 in oocytes, spastin distribution shifted from the spindle to the spindle poles and errors in microtubule–kinetochore attachment appeared in oocyte spindles. However, CRMP5 did not interact with the other two microtubule-severing proteins, katanin-like-1 (KATNAL1) and fidgetin-like-1 (FIGNL1), which aggregate at the spindle poles. We speculate that, in oocytes, due to the reduction of spastin distribution on chromosomes after knocking down CRMP5, microtubule–kinetochore errors cannot be corrected through severing, resulting in meiotic division abnormalities and maturation defects in oocytes. This finding provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of spastin in oocytes and important opportunities for the study of meiotic division mechanisms.
Fine mapping and discovery of watermelon rind trait candidate genes are of great significance for modern watermelon breeding and development. In this study, we used the high-resolution genetic mapping and genome-wide genetic variation detection technology, combined with genome survey and sequencing technology, to locate and discover the candidate genes for rind traits of star watermelon varieties ‘Su XuanBai’ and ‘SHLX21’. Firstly, we identified a total of eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to watermelon rind traits on chromosome 6. Secondly, a total of 208,240 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 75,345 small Indels (insertions/deletions) were detected in the two parents by high-coverage re-sequencing, respectively. Based on the genetic variation of the two parents and combined with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis using the planta database, the QTL region was reduced to 0.02 Mb. Finally, we identified the six potential regulatory factors for watermelon rind traits using real-time quantitative PCR. In conclusion, our results revealed the fine localization of candidate genes for watermelon rind traits and the successful discovery of candidate genes for regulating watermelon rind traits, which is of importance for watermelon rind traits and breeding-improved watermelon varieties.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to an initial increase in the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) from clinical cultures in South-East Asia hospitals, which was unsustained as the pandemic progressed. Conversely, there was a decrease in CRE incidence from surveillance cultures and overall combined incidence. Further studies are needed for future pandemic preparedness.
Maternal depressive symptoms are a crucial risk factor for children’s internalizing problems, though positive mother–child relationships may buffer this risk transmission. Mother–child physiological coregulation (e.g., synchrony) has emerged as a potentially important mechanism of developmental psychopathology and may play a role in the transmission of internalizing symptoms. In this two-wave longitudinal study, we examined whether and how mother–infant physiological synchrony (of respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) moderated the association between maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and children’s internalizing problems in a rural, low-SES community sample (N = 166 dyads). At 6 months, mother–infant RSA synchrony and infant negative affect were assessed during free play. Mother reported their depressive symptoms at 6 months and children’s internalizing problems at 24 months. Multilevel structural equation models indicated that mother–infant dyads demonstrated significant and positive RSA synchrony on average and RSA synchrony significantly moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s internalizing problems even after controlling for infant negative affect. Greater maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher child internalizing problems when RSA synchrony was lower but not when it was higher. This finding suggests that mother–infant RSA synchrony may operate as a resilience factor for the intergenerational transmission of internalizing symptoms in community samples.
This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and prognosis of patients with alcoholic Marchiafava–Bignami disease (MBD), a rare neurological disorder commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, in Chongqing, China.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 21 alcoholic MBD patients treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University between 2012 and 2022.
The study included 21 patients with alcoholic MBD who had a mean age of 59 ± 9.86 years and an average drinking history of 35.48 ± 8.65 years. Acute onset was observed in 14 (66.7%) patients. The primary clinical signs observed were psychiatric disorders (66.7%), altered consciousness (61.9%), cognitive disorders (61.9%), and seizures (42.9%). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed long T1 and long T2 signal changes in the corpus callosum, with lesions predominantly found in the genu (76.2%) and splenium (71.4%) of the corpus callosum. The poor prognosis group demonstrated an increased incidence of altered consciousness (100% vs 50%, P = 0.044), pyramidal signs (80% vs 18.8%, P = 0.011), and pneumonia (100% vs 31.3%, P = 0.007). Patients with a longer drinking history (45.0 ± 10.0 years vs 32.69 ± 5.99 years, p = 0.008) and a lower thiamine dose (p = 0.035) had a poorer prognosis at 1 year.
This study identified altered consciousness, pyramidal signs, and pneumonia as predictors of a poor prognosis in patients with alcoholic MBD. A longer duration of alcohol consumption and inadequate thiamine supplementation were associated with a poorer prognosis.
Continuous risky decisions refer to decisions that involve trade-offs among options with persistent risks. People can use the probability of occurrence per unit time (e.g., ‘the probability of occurrence is 1% per month’) or the average time of risk occurrence (e.g., ‘the average occurrence time is 100 months’) to represent continuous risky options. In this study, we examined the effect of the presentation format (i.e., the probability of occurrence per unit time vs. the average time of risk occurrence) on continuous risky decisions in the gain domain and further explored the underlying mechanism. In Study 1 (N = 122), we demonstrated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions and the moderating effect of the magnitude of probabilities. Specifically, when the probabilities were relatively low, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, using the average time of risk occurrence to present the continuous risky options led to more risk-averse decisions. However, when the probabilities were relatively high, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, the presentation format of the average time occurrence led to more risk-seeking decisions. In Study 2 (N = 136), we found that the moderating effect of the option probabilities on continuous risky decisions was mediated by the subjective attribute-wise difference judgment. In Study 3 (N = 221), we replicated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions in more natural scenarios. The study offered a deep understanding of the mechanism of continuous risky decision-making, and the results were conducive to further developing theories in relevant fields.
As the main global terrestrial ecosystem component, grasslands are extremely sensitive to global climate change. With increasing human activities over the last century, grassland ecosystems have been degraded to different degrees. However, the evolution of lake-grassland ecosystems in recent centuries remains unclear due to the dearth of high-resolution records. Here, we present high-resolution lacustrine sediment grain size, pollen (Artemisia, Myriophyllum), Pediastrum, and n-alkane records from Ganggeng Nur Lake to investigate vegetation, lake evolution, and human effects in semiarid northern China. Four stages were identified from the last ca. 150 years: (1) the natural evolution stage (AD 1870–1945), in which there was a wet climate around Ganggeng Nur and the lake level rose from increased runoff; (2) the human disturbance stage (AD 1945–1967), in which the regional climate got drier and human activities began having a detectable effect on the grassland ecosystem; (3) the human transformation stage (AD 1967–2005), in which a completely arid climate coupled with the implementation of a series of land reclamation policies resulted in a large reduction in grassland areas, extensive soil erosion, exacerbated climate change, and shrinking lake areas; and (4) the posttreatment stage (AD 2005–2018), in which soil erosion was alleviated by policy implementation and a favorable humid climate.
Despite rising incidences of global disasters, basic principles of disaster medicine training are barely taught in Singapore’s 3 medical schools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current levels of emergency preparedness, attitudes, and perceptions of disaster medicine education among medical students in Singapore.
The Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire (EPIQ) was provided to enrolled medical students in Singapore by means of an online form, from March 6, 2020, to February 20, 2021. A total of 635 (25.7%) responses were collated and analyzed.
Mean score for overall familiarity was low, at 1.50 ± 0.74, on a Likert scale of 1 for not familiar to 5 for very familiar. A total of 90.6% of students think that disaster medicine is an important facet of the curriculum, and 93.1% agree that training should be provided for medical students. Although 77.3% of respondents believe that they are unable to contribute to a disaster scenario currently, 92.8% believe that they will be able to contribute with formal training.
Despite low levels of emergency preparedness knowledge, the majority of medical students in Singapore are keen for adaptation of disaster medicine into the current curriculum to be able to contribute more effectively. This can arm future health-care professionals with the confidence to respond to any potential emergency.
The relationship between magmatism and gold mineralization has been a topic of interest in understanding the formation of ore deposits. The Baizhangzi gold deposit, located in the northern margin of the North China Craton, is hosted by the Baizhangzi granite (BZG) and provides a case to evaluate the relation between granite and gold mineralization in Late Triassic. In this study, we present petrography, bulk geochemistry, zircon U-Pb isotope and trace elements data, as well as major elements of biotite and plagioclase for the BZG to evaluate the petrogenesis and link with gold mineralization. The BZG comprises biotite monzogranite, biotite-bearing monzogranite and monzogranite (BZGs). Zircon U-Pb geochronology shows that all the granitoids of BZGs were coeval with a formation age of 232 Ma. The granitoids, with high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr, while low Y and Yb, show adakitic affinity. They are enriched in LILFs (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th, U and Sr) and LREEs, while depletion in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti). The geochemical and mineral chemical data suggest that the granitoids have experienced the fractional crystallization of biotite + plagioclase + K- feldspar + apatite. Crystallization temperature is estimated as ca. 700°C, and pressure is between 0.71 kbar and 1.60 kbar. The monzogranite shows higher values of logfO2, △FMQ and △NNO than the biotite-bearing monzogranite, ranging from −19.76 to −11.71, −4.93 to +3.67 and −5.48 to +3.11, respectively. The fractional crystallization, together with high fO2, K-metasomatism and low evolution degree, provided favourable conditions for gold mineralization.
When motile algal cells are exposed to gyrotactic torques, their swimming directions are guided to form radial accumulation, well known as hydrodynamic focusing. The origin of hydrodynamic focusing from the effects of active swimming, ambient flow and particle anisotropy is elucidated in the present study on the pre-asymptotic dispersion of active particles through a vertical pipe. With an extension of the Galerkin method to pipe flows, time-dependent solutions directly from the Smoluchowski equation in the position and orientation space are derived by series expansions of spherical harmonics and Bessel functions. Ballistic and diffusive scaling laws are examined with the predominance of self-propelled swimming, and computation is validated against an explicit benchmark solution and Lagrangian particle simulation. In the limit of extreme shear, the competitive roles of shear dispersion and Brownian rotation are reflected concretely in the pre-asymptotic phase of hydrodynamic focusing. For flows with various shear strengths, a concentration peak in near-wall regions with a smooth transition to hydrodynamic focusing is illustrated with richer phenomena in upwelling and downwelling flows. A newly observed regime through a vertical pipe, named transient effective trapping, is revealed as a transitional mode towards hydrodynamic focusing. The pre-asymptotic approach to hydrodynamic focusing is elaborated intensively through extensive solutions of concentration moments and macroscopic transport coefficients characterised by swimming and flow Péclet numbers. The unique findings for the origin of hydrodynamic focusing could provide insight into related micro-algae reactor technology and contribute to flow control and biomass transfer in confined environments.
Objectives: Over the past 2 years, many infection prevention and control (IPC) resources have been diverted to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. Its impact on the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms has not been adequately studied. We investigated the impact of the pandemic on the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) in Singapore. Methods: We extracted data on unique CRE isolates (clinical and/or surveillance cultures) and patient days for 6 public hospitals in Singapore from the carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CaPES) study group database, and we calculated the monthly incidence of CRE (per 10,000 patient days). Interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis was conducted with the pre–COVID-19 period defined as before February 2020, and the COVID-19 period defined as after February 2020. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 15 software. Results: From January 2017 to March 2021, 6,770 CRE isolates and 9,126,704 patient days were documented. The trend in CRE monthly incidence increased significantly during the pre–COVID-19 period (0.060; 95% CI, 0.033–0.094; P < .001) but decreased during the COVID-19 period (−0.183; 95% CI, −0.390 to 0.023; P = .080) without stepwise change in the incidence (−1.496; 95% CI, −3.477 to 0.485; P = .135). The trend in monthly incidence rate of CRE clinical cultures increased significantly during the pre–COVID-19 period (0.046; 95% CI, 0.028–0.064; P < .001) and decreased significantly during COVID-19 period (−0.148; 95% CI, −0.249 to −0.048; P = .048) with no stepwise change in the incidence (−0.063; 95% CI, −0.803 to 0.677; P = .864). The trend in monthly incidence rate of CRE surveillance cultures decreased during the pre–COVID-19 period (−0.020; 95% CI, −0.062 to 0.022; P = .341) and the COVID-19 period (−0.067; 95% CI, −0.291to 0.158; P = .552) without stepwise change in the incidence (−1.327; 95% CI, −3.535 to 0.881; P = .233). Conclusions: The rate of CRE in clinical cultures decreased during COVID-19 but not the rate in surveillance cultures. Further studies are warranted to study the impact of COVID-19 on CREs.
Time preference reversal refers to systematic inconsistencies between preferences and bids for intertemporal options. From the two eye-tracking studies (N1 = 60, N2 = 110), we examined the underlying mechanisms of time preference reversal. We replicated the reversal effect in which individuals facing a pair of intertemporal options choose the smaller-sooner option but assign a higher value to the larger-later one. Results revealed that the mean fixation duration and the proportion of gaze time on the outcome attribute varied across the choice and bid tasks. In addition, time preference reversals correlated with individual differences in maximizing tendencies. Findings support the contingent weighting hypothesis and strategy compatibility hypothesis and allow for improved theoretical understanding of the potential mechanisms and processes involved in time preference reversals.
High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) contribute to dough elasticity and bread baking quality in wheat. In this study, wheat varieties were classified based on their HMW-GS composition into three groups: 1Dx5 (5 + 10, Gaoyou 8901, Xinmai 28, Xinmai 19, Xinmai 26 and Jinbaoyin), 1Dx2 (2 + 12, Zhoumai 24, Xinmai 9 and Yumai) and 1Dx4 (4 + 12, Aikang 58). Sequence analysis showed that 1Dx-GY8901, 1Dx-XM28, 1Dx-XM19 and 1Dx-XM26 were similar to the 1Dx5 gene and clustered on the same branch, while 1Dx-AK58, 1Dx-ZM24, 1Dx-JBY, 1Dx-YM, 1Dx-XM9 and 1Dx-JBY were more similar to the 1Dx2 gene and clustered on the same branch with 1Dx.2.2. There was a mutation of Ser to Cys at position S2, for an extra Cys in the repeat regions of 1Dx-XM19, 1Dx-XM26, 1Dx-XM28 and 1Dx-GY8901. The wheat HMW-GS genes exhibited similar percentages of α-helix, extended strand, β-turn and random coil structure, with ranges of 13.33–13.59, 4.77–5.78, 7.08–9.18 and 72.3–73.94%, respectively. Sequence conservation and the composition of HMW-GS subunits were also analysed for a series of strong gluten wheat varieties, Xinmai 9 (1, 7 + 8, 2 + 12), Xinmai 19 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10), Xinmai 26 (1, 7 + 8, 5 + 10) and Xinmai 28 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10). The results of this work should facilitate future breeding efforts and provide the theoretical basis for wheat quality improvement.
To investigate the association between folate levels and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk during the whole pregnancy.
In this retrospective cohort study of pregnant women, serum folate levels were measured before 24 gestational weeks (GW). GDM was diagnosed between 24th and 28th GW based on the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. General linear models were performed to examine the association of serum folate with plasma glucose (i.e. linear regressions) and risk of GDM (i.e. log-binomial regressions) after controlling for confounders. Restricted cubic spline regression was conducted to test the dosage–response relationship between serum folate and the risk of GDM.
A sigle, urban hospital in Shanghai, China.
A total of 42 478 women who received antenatal care from April 2013 to March 2017 were included.
Consistent positive associations were observed between serum folate and plasma glucose levels (fasting, 1-h, 2-h). The adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI of GDM across serum folate quartiles were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI (1·04, 1·26)), 1·40 (95 % CI (1·27, 1·54)) and 1·54 (95 % CI (1·40, 1·69)), respectively (P-for-trend < 0·001). The positive association between serum folate and GDM remained when stratified by vitamin B12 (adequate v. deficient groups) and the GW of serum folate measurement (≤13 GW v. >13 GWs)
The findings of this study may provide important evidence for the public health and clinical guidelines of pregnancy folate supplementation in terms of GDM prevention.
Understanding predator–prey interactions is essential for successful pest management by using predators, especially for the suppression of novel invasive pest. The green lacewing Chrysopa formosa is a promising polyphagous predator that is widely used in the biocontrol of various pests in China, but information on the control efficiency of this predator against the seriously invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda and native Spodoptera litura is limited. Here we evaluated the predation efficiency of C. formosa adults on eggs and first- to third-instar larvae of S. frugiperda and S. litura through functional response experiments and determined the consumption capacity and prey preference of this chrysopid. Adults of C. formosa had a high consumption of eggs and earlier instar larvae of both prey species, and displayed a type II functional response on all prey stages. Attack rates of the chrysopid on different prey stages were statistically similar, but the handling time increased notably as the prey developed. The highest predation efficiency and shortest-handling time were observed for C. formosa feeding on Spodoptera eggs, followed by the first-instar larvae. C. formosa exhibited a significant preference for S. litura over S. frugiperda in a two-prey system. In addition, we summarized the functional response and predation efficiency of several chrysopids against noctuid pests and made a comparison with the results obtained from C. formosa. These results indicate that C. formosa has potential as an agent for biological control of noctuid pests, particularly for the newly invasive pest S. frugiperda in China.
This multi-method longitudinal study evaluated how changes in maternal sensitive parenting may operate as an indirect factor linking family instability and the development of child externalizing problems over time. This study also investigated how mothers’ stress reactivity within the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) may moderate the association between family instability and the development of maternal sensitivity. Participants were 235 families with a young child (Mage = 2.97 years at the first measurement occasion) and these families were followed for two annual measurement occasions. Maternal sensitivity was observed during two discipline tasks (i.e., forbidden toy, discipline discussion tasks), and maternal SNS stress reactivity was indicated by their salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity to an interpersonal stressor. Findings revealed significant direct effects of family instability and family instability-x-sAA reactivity interaction in association with the change in maternal sensitivity over time. For both tasks, mothers with greater sAA reactivity exhibited stronger associations between family instability and the growth of their sensitivity. Tests of indirect effects indicated that change in maternal sensitivity operated as an indirect factor between family instability-x-sAA reactivity interaction and the change in child externalizing problems. The present findings have important implications for understanding parental and child sequelae associated with unstable family contexts.
Resistance to carbapenems in human pathogens is a growing clinical and public health concern. The carbapenems are in an antimicrobial class considered last-resort, they are used to treat human infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales, and they are classified by the World Health Organization as ‘High Priority Critically Important Antimicrobials’. The presence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CREs) of animal-origin is of concern because targeted studies of Canadian retail seafood revealed the presence of carbapenem resistance in a small number of Enterobacterales isolates. To further investigate this issue, a risk profile was developed examining shrimp and salmon, the two most important seafood commodities consumed by Canadians and Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacterales order. Carbapenem-resistant E. coli (CREc) isolates have been identified in shrimp and other seafood products. Although carbapenem use in aquaculture has not been reported, several classes of antimicrobials are utilised globally and co-selection of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in an aquaculture setting is also of concern. CREs have been identified in retail seafood purchased in Canada and are currently thought to be uncommon. However, data concerning CRE or CREc occurrence and distribution in seafood are limited, and argue for implementation of ongoing or periodic surveillance.
Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
Nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate is a nicotine salt that can be used as the nicotine source in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4, are reported [a = 7.726(8) Å, b = 11.724(3) Å, c = 9.437(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 109.081(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 802.902 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.309 g cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and were consistent with the P21 space group.
Drawing on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 10,700), we evaluate indirect effects − via parent negative psychology and harsh-inconsistent parenting − of income harshness, unpredictability, and their interaction on kindergarteners’ socioemotional development. Income harshness is operationalized as the typical level of family income-to-needs across four repeated measurements from 9 months to kindergarten and unpredictability as random variation across the same repeated measurements. Results indicate that the effects of greater income harshness and the harshness-X-unpredictability interaction (reflecting more predictable income harshness) on more “problematic” child behavior operated via both parent negative psychology (i.e., greater psychological stress) and harsh-inconsistent parenting. Results underscore the utility of simultaneously investigating effects of income harshness and unpredictability, as well as their interaction and mechanisms of influence.