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Nosema bombycis is a destructive and specific intracellular parasite of silkworm, which is extremely harmful to the silkworm industry. N. bombycis is considered as a quarantine pathogen of sericulture because of its long incubation period and horizontal and vertical transmission. Herein, two single-chain antibodies targeting N. bombycis hexokinase (NbHK) were cloned and expressed in fusion with the N-terminal of Slmb (a Drosophila melanogaster FBP), which contains the F-box domain. Western blotting demonstrated that Sf9-III cells expressed NSlmb–scFv-7A and NSlmb–scFv-6H, which recognized native NbHK. Subsequently, the NbHK was degraded by host ubiquitination system. When challenged with N. bombycis, the transfected Sf9-III cells exhibited better resistance relative to the controls, demonstrating that NbHK is a prospective target for parasite controls and this approach represents a potential solution for constructing N. bombycis-resistant Bombyx mori.
Parasite–host interactions mediated by cell surface proteins have been implicated as a critical step in infections caused by the microsporidian Nosema bombycis. Such cell surface proteins are considered as promising diagnostic markers and targets for drug development. However, little research has specifically addressed surface proteome identification in microsporidia due to technical barriers. Here, a combined strategy was developed to separate and identify the surface proteins of N. bombycis. Briefly, following (1) biotinylation of the spore surface, (2) extraction of total proteins with an optimized method and (3) streptavidin affinity purification of biotinylated proteins, 22 proteins were identified based on LC-MS/MS analysis. Among them, 5 proteins were confirmed to be localized on the surface of N. bombycis. A total of 8 proteins were identified as hypothetical extracellular proteins, whereas 7 other hypothetical proteins had no available function annotation. Furthermore, a protein with a molecular weight of 18·5 kDa was localized on the spore surface by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, even though it was predicted to be a nuclear protein by bioinformatics. Collectively, our work provides an effective strategy for isolating microsporidian surface protein components for both drug target identification and further diagnostic research on microsporidian disease control.
Nosema bombycis, a pathogen of silkworm pebrine, is an obligate unicellular eukaryotic parasite. It is reported that the spore wall proteins have essential functions in the adherence and infection process of microsporidia. To date, the information related to spore wall proteins from microsporidia is still limited. Here, a 44 kDa spore wall protein NbSWP16 was characterized in N. bombycis. In NbSWP16, a 25 amino acids signal peptide and 3 heparin binding motifs were predicted. Interestingly, a region that contains 3 proline-rich tandem repeats lacking homology to any known protein was also present in this protein. The immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) demonstrated that distinct fluorescent signals were detected both on the surface of mature spores and the germinated spore coats. Immunolocation by electron microscopy revealed that NbSWP16 localized on the exospore regions. Finally, spore adherence analysis indicated that spore adherence to host cell was decreased more than 20% by anti-NbSWP16 blocking compared with the negative control in vitro. In contrast with anti-NbSWP16, no remarkable decrement inhibition was detected when antibodies of NbSWP16 and NbSWP5 were used simultaneously. Collectively, these results suggest that NbSWP16 is a new exospore protein and probably be involved in spore adherence of N. bombycis.
The spore wall of Nosema bombycis plays an important role in microsporidian pathogenesis. Protein fractions from germinated spore coats were analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Three protein spots were identified as the hypothetical spore wall protein NbHSWP12. A BAR-2 domain (e-value: 1.35e-03) was identified in the protein, and an N-terminal protein-heparin interaction motif, a potential N-glycosylation site, and 16 phosphorylation sites primarily activated by protein kinase C were also predicted. The sequence analysis suggested that Nbhswp12 and its homologous genes are widely distributed among microsporidia. Additionally, Nbhswp12 gene homologues share similar sequence features. An indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that NbHSWP12 localized to the spore wall, and thus we renamed it spore wall protein 12 (NbSWP12). Moreover, NbSWP12 could adhere to deproteinized N. bombycis chitin coats that were obtained by hot alkaline treatment. This novel N. bombycis spore wall protein may function in a structural capacity to facilitate microsporidial spore maintenance.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
Many planets have been detected in close binary stars with separation only ~20 AU. These discoveries challenge the current theory of planet formation because binary stars with such an close separation are thought to have strong perturbations and thus inhibit planet formation around them. To address this issue, another scenario had been suggested: the binary separation was wider enough for binary formation in early stages, but it shrank to the present one after a transient triple star phase (stellar scattering phase). Here, we investigate how could planet survive or be ejected under this scenario. We find that (1) the odds of planetary survival are significantly reduced if scatterings between planets and/or planetesimals are included (2) circumbinary planets/planetesimals could be readily formed during such a transient phase.
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