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Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric, obsessive-compulsive disorder characterized by persistent, pre-occupying, intrusive thoughts regarding defects in one’s physical appearance. This leads to potentially harmful behaviors such as constant mirror checking, avoiding socialization, and the need to seek constant validation. The recent increase in social media usage and influence, especially the use of photo-editing apps, has been correlated with a steep decline in body satisfaction due to the perpetuation of unrealistic beauty standards.
This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of BDD in the general population of Pakistan and assess the association of BDD with social media usage.
A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2022 to October 2022 on the general population of Pakistan using an online self-administered, anonymous, pretested questionnaire. It contained socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, educational discipline, and household income). Participants were screened for BDD using a pre-tested Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ) modified to fit the revised DSM-5 criteria. They were further asked about the specifics of the defects they were concerned about, and whether or not they compared their appearance with people online. Characteristics of social media use such as the types of applications used and time spent on them were also asked. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.26.
Out of 779 participants, 5.3% (41) screened positive for BDD. The most repeated behaviors in BDD-positive participants were a comparison of how they looked with other people and checking themselves in the mirror to see how they look. Their most common defect of concern was skin (acne, scars, wrinkles, paleness, redness) followed by the shape or size of the nose, mouth, jaws, or lips. There was a significant association between age and BDD diagnosis (p < 0.001) and between the tendency to compare themselves with people online and BDD diagnosis (p = 0.001). However, no statistically significant differences were found in the BDD-positive and negative groups concerning gender, the number of social media applications used, or time spent on social media.
There is a need to educate the public about the risk of BDD, especially the more susceptible age, and promote safe social networking. Counseling about the harmful effects of social media could be helpful. This is the first study of its kind done on the Pakistani population and one of the few studies that exist on this topic worldwide. Hence, to reach a conclusive decision, there is a dire need to carry out similar investigations with larger sample sizes and on populations that have yet not been studied.
Maternal adversity and prenatal stress confer risk for child behavioral health problems. Few studies have examined this intergenerational process across multiple dimensions of stress; fewer have explored potential protective factors. Using a large, diverse sample of mother–child dyads, we examined associations between maternal childhood trauma, prenatal stressors, and offspring socioemotional-behavioral development, while also examining potential resilience-promoting factors. The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning and Early Childhood (CANDLE) study prospectively followed 1503 mother–child dyads (65% Black, 32% White) from pregnancy. Exposures included maternal childhood trauma, socioeconomic risk, intimate partner violence, and geocode-linked neighborhood violent crime during pregnancy. Child socioemotional-behavioral functioning was measured via the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (mean age = 1.1 years). Maternal social support and parenting knowledge during pregnancy were tested as potential moderators. Multiple linear regressions (N = 1127) revealed that maternal childhood trauma, socioeconomic risk, and intimate partner violence were independently, positively associated with child socioemotional-behavioral problems at age one in fully adjusted models. Maternal parenting knowledge moderated associations between both maternal childhood trauma and prenatal socioeconomic risk on child problems: greater knowledge was protective against the effects of socioeconomic risk and was promotive in the context of low maternal history of childhood trauma. Findings indicate that multiple dimensions of maternal stress and adversity are independently associated with child socioemotional-behavioral problems. Further, modifiable environmental factors, including knowledge regarding child development, can mitigate these risks. Both findings support the importance of parental screening and early intervention to promote child socioemotional-behavioral health.
Children of mothers with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for developmental problems. However, the mechanisms through which a mother's experience of ACEs are transmitted to her offspring are understudied. The current study investigates potential modifiable mediators (maternal psychopathology and parenting) of the association between maternal ACEs and children's behavioral problems.
We utilized data from a pregnancy cohort study (N = 1030; CANDLE study) to investigate longitudinal associations between maternal ACEs, postpartum anxiety, observed parenting behavior, and child internalizing behaviors (meanage = 4.31 years, s.d.age = 0.38) in a racially diverse (67% Black; 33% White/Other) sample. We used structural equation modeling to test for direct associations between maternal ACEs and children's internalizing behaviors, as well as indirect associations via two simple mediations (maternal anxiety and parenting), and one serial mediation (sequence of maternal anxiety to parenting).
Simple mediation results indicated that maternal anxiety and cognitive growth fostering behaviors independently mediated the association between maternal ACEs and child internalizing. We observed no evidence of a serial mediation from ACEs to internalizing via the effects of maternal anxiety on parenting.
This study supports and refines extant literature by confirming the intergenerational association between maternal ACEs and child internalizing behaviors in a large, diverse sample, and identifies potential modifiable mediators: maternal anxiety and parenting behaviors related to fostering cognitive development. Findings may inform interventions targeting mothers who have experienced ACEs and suggest that providing support around specific parenting behaviors and addressing maternal anxiety may reduce internalizing behaviors in children.
B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-cell NHL) is the second commonest malignancy in the stomach. We determined the distribution of Helicobacter pylori outer membrane protein Q (HopQ) allelic type, cytotoxin-associated gene (cag)-pathogenicity activity island (cag-PAI) and vacuolation activating cytotoxin A (vacA) genes, respectively, in patients with B-cell NHL. We also compared them with their distribution in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). H. pylori was cultured from gastric biopsy tissue obtained at endoscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was performed. Of 170 patients enrolled, 114 (63%) had NUD and 56 (37%) had B-cell NHL. HopQ type 1 was positive in 66 (58%) in NUD compared with 46 (82%) (P = 0·002) in B-cell NHL; HopQ type 2 was positive in 93 (82%) with NUD compared with 56 (100%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. Multiple HopQ types were present in 46 (40%) in NUD compared with 46 (82%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. CagA was positive in 48 (42%) in NUD vs. 50 (89%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL; cagT was positive in 35 (31%) in NUD vs. 45 (80%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL; left end of the cagA gene (LEC)1 was positive in 23 (20%) in NUD vs. 43 (77%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. VacAs1am1 positive in B-cell NHL in 48 (86%) (P < 0·001) vs. 50 (44%) in NUD, while s1am2 was positive in 20 (17%) in NUD vs. 46 (82%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. H. pylori strains with multiple HopQ allelic types, truncated cag-PAI evidenced by expression of cagA, cagT and cag LEC with virulent vacAs1 alleles are associated with B-cell NHL development.
Antibiotic resistance has led poultry nutritionists to find alternatives for antibacterial growth promoters in broilers. Among these substitutes, one is mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), a yeast cell wall derived prebiotic. MOS decreases the load of pathogenic bacteria through 1) binding bacterial type-1 fimbriae 2) increasing goblet cells which produce bactericidal mucin and 3) providing favourable environment for the growth of beneficial bacteria leading to competitive exclusion. Balance between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria causes increase in villus length and decrease in crypt depth which are biomarkers for gut morphological improvement. As structure is equal to function, improvement in intestinal morphology increases activity of digestive enzymes and ultimately improves digestion. Besides these, immunomodulatory effect of MOS activates macrophages of gut associated lymphoid tissues resulting in improvement in cellular, humoral and cutaneous immunity. MOS also increases production of butyric acid and decrease pH of intestine in broilers. Though these combined mechanisms, MOS improves growth rate and performance of broilers.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) type A subtype H9N2 usually causes mild asymptomatic infections, and is mostly undetected and is, therefore, under-reported. This has allowed the virus to rapidly evolve via mutations and reassortments in its genome with other avian influenza subtypes especially H1N1, H5N1 and H7N3 thereby introducing new variant strains and producing severe disease. It has been reported that the AIV H9N2 donated its internal genes for the devastating 1997 Hong Kong outbreak and furthermore, it may be the cause of the next influenza pandemic. There are many factors such as its wide host range, ability to cross the species barrier, ecological diversity, antiviral resistance and zoonotic importance that make it an excellent candidate for the next influenza pandemic. These and other factors like ineffective vaccination, negative immunological pressures, lack of surveillance, which contribute to its continuous persistence and evolutionary dynamics are discussed in this paper. It is important to take the necessary measures to control and prevent its unchecked circulation to prevent the future outbreaks.
Although mental health legislation has existed in India since the mid-19th century, it has gone through various changes over the years and the Mental Health Care Bill 2013 has generated a lot of debate and criticism. Despite its shortcomings, the general expectation is that this bill will usher in a new era of proper care and allow people with mental disorders to lead a dignified life.
We studied the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence markers, e.g. cytotoxin associated gene (cagA), cagA promoter, vacuolating associated cytotoxin A (vacA) alleles induced by contact with epithelium (iceA type), and outer membrane protein Q (hopQ) in expatriates and compared them with those in local residents. Gastric biopsies were obtained at endoscopy for culture, histology and PCR for virulence marker and hopQ. Of 309 patients, 236 (76%) were males with a mean age of 45 years. A total of 102 patients were expatriates. hopQ type 1 was present in 98 (47%) local residents compared to 88 (86%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while hopQ type 2 was present in 176 (85%) local residents, compared to 60 (59%) expatriates (P < 0·001). H. pylori virulence marker cagA was positive in 97 (47%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001) while cagA-P was positive in 72 (35%) local residents compared to 87 (85%) expatriates (P < 0·001). iceA type 1 was positive in 157 (76%) local residents compared to 45 (44%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while iceA type 2 was positive in 81 (39%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001). Distribution of H. pylori cagA, cagA promoter, iceA and hopQ type in local residents and expatriates was different. H. pylori virulence markers were associated with severe pathology in expatriates.
To evaluate our results in treating Zenker's diverticulum via the transcervical approach, and to compare our experiences with a recent systematic review of both open and endoscopic approaches to the pharyngeal pouch.
An audit yielded 41 consecutive cases of Zenker's diverticulum treated between 2003 and 2013.
All 41 patients underwent transcervical cricopharyngeal myotomy; 29 sacs also required ‘inversion’. The median and mean length of hospital stay was 1 night and 2.5 nights respectively. The recurrence rate was 2.4 per cent and the complication rate was 9.8 per cent.
When compared to reported endoscopic techniques, transcervical cricopharyngeal myotomy (with or without inversion) in our unit resulted in: shorter hospital stay, a comparable complication rate and fewer recurrences.
Delineating site-specific management zones within fields can be helpful in addressing spatial variability effects for adopting precision farming practices. A 3-year (2008/09 to 2010/11) field study was conducted at the Postgraduate Agricultural Research Station, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, to identify the most important soil and landscape attributes influencing wheat grain yield, which can be used for delineating management zones. A total of 48 soil samples were collected from the top 300 mm of soil in 8-ha experimental field divided into regular grids of 24 × 67 m prior to sowing wheat. Soil and landscape attributes such as elevation, % of sand, silt and clay by volume, soil electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soil nitrogen (N) and soil phosphorus (P) were included in the analysis. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that % sand, % clay, elevation, soil N and soil EC were important variables for delineating management zones. Different management zone schemes ranging from three to six were developed and evaluated based on performance indicators using Management Zone Analyst (MZA V0·1) software. The fuzziness performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy NCE indices showed minimum values for a four management zone scheme, indicating its appropriateness for the experimental field. The coefficient of variation values of soil and landscape attributes decreased for each management zone within the four management zone scheme compared to the entire field, which showed improved homogeneity. The evaluation of the four management zone scheme using normalized wheat grain yield data showed distinct means for each management zone, verifying spatial variability effects and the need for its management. The results indicated that the approach based on ANN and MZA software analysis can be helpful in delineating management zones within the field, to promote precision farming practices effectively.
The Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is on the brink of extinction. Although habitat loss and poaching were the reasons of the decline, today's reproductive isolation is the main threat to the survival of the species. Genetic studies have played an important role in identifying conservation priorities, including for rhinoceroses. However, for a species such as the Sumatran rhinoceros, where time is of the essence in preventing extinction, to what extent should genetic and geographical distances be taken into account in deciding the most urgently needed conservation interventions? We propose that the populations of Sumatra and Borneo be considered as a single management unit.
A growing trend for nutraceutical and gluten-free cereal-based products highlights the need for development of new products. Buckwheat is one of the potential candidates for such products and the present paper reviews the functional and nutraceutical compounds present in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). The vital functional substances in buckwheat are flavonoids, phytosterols, fagopyrins, fagopyritols, phenolic compounds, resistant starch, dietary fibre, lignans, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, which make it a highly active biological pseudocereal. Cholesterol-lowering effects that lessen the problems of constipation and obesity are important health benefits that can be achieved through the functional substances of buckwheat.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time
phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to
address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small
space missions. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope that
uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than
slewing the entire spacecraft or telescope to aim the optical instrument at the GRB
position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for
the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and transient studies. Its fast
response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRB each year will provide
unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRB as a new standard
candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. We describe the current limit in
early photon measurements, the aspects of early photon physics, our soon-to-be-launched
UFFO-pathfinder mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) aims to detect the earliest moment of Gamma-Ray
Bursts (GRBs) which is not well known, resulting into the enhancement of GRB mechanism
understanding. The pathfinder mission was proposed to be a scaled-down version of UFFO,
and only contains the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) measuring the
X-ray/gamma-ray with the wide-field of view and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) with a
rapid-response for the UV/optical photons. Once the UBAT detects a GRB candidate with the
position accuracy of 10 arcmin, the SMT steers the UV/optical photons from the candidate
to the telescope by the fast rotatable mirror and provides the early UV/optical photons
measurements with 4 arcsec accuracy. The SMT has a modified Ritchey-Chrètien telescope
with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter including the rotatable mirror and the image
readout by the intensified charge-coupled device. There is a key board called the UFFO
Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) that manages the communication of each telescope and also
of the satellite and the UFFO overall operation. This pathfinder is designed and built
within the limited size and weight of ~20 kg and the low power consumption up to
~30 W. We will discuss the design and performance of the UFFO-pathfinder, and its
integration to the Lomonosov satellite.
This paper deals largely with the dynamics and changes in the helminth parasite communities of fish along the trophic gradient of lakes. The use of parasitological community data as a bioindicator of environmental health underlines the need to study parasite communities at comparable localities with known pollution levels. The comparison of the conditions in different habitats might be helpful to differentiate between normal fluctuations in ambient conditions and pollution-mediated effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the community structure of parasites in snow trout (Schizothorax niger Heckel) inhabiting 3 lakes of contrasting trophic status in Kashmir. The idea of selecting the lakes, namely Anchar (strongly hypereutrophic), Dal (eutrophic) and Manasbal (mesotrophic) for this study was intentional as they depict different trophic gradients and exhibit the desirable pattern which was a prerequisite for this study. The findings presented in this article suggest an apparent lake-wise gradient in community structure, as the increase in trematode and cestode infections in Anchar was markedly greater, to levels clearly distinguishable from those in the other two water bodies. We conclude that human-induced eutrophication of lakes modifies the parasite community at component level and community-level studies on parasites may provide information on health status of lakes.