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Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging enable the identification of neuronal migration disorders during life. Several specific syndromes have been identified and early diagnosis of previously unrecognized entities is now possible. We report 51 patients with imaging. Thirty-two had a single widespread cortical dysplastic lesion. Twenty-eight had focal corticectomies. From a pathological standpoint, these encompassed focal cortical dysplasia (14 cases) and forme fruste of tuberous sclerosis (10 cases). These two groups of patients were indistinguishable from the clinical and radiological standpoint. In only two was the MRI examination normal. In addition, there were 10 with bilateral perisylvian dysplasia, four with diffuse cortical dysplasia or the "double cortex" syndrome, three with hemimegalencephaly, one with megalencephaly, and one with nodular neuronal heterotopia. The electroclinical and imaging findings led to the development of specific surgical strategies for the alleviation of the intractable seizures in each of these radiologically-defined syndromes.
In a consecutive series of 40 patients selected by EEG studies for surgical treatment of temporal lobe seizures, magnetic resonance imaging showed structural lesions in 25% and signal abnormalities, usually in the mesial temporal region, in another 35%. Pathological changes included structural lesions in over 30% of patients and sclerosis of the amygdala in almost half of the series. These findings further substantiate the implication of the amygdala in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe seizures with automatism and amnesia.
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