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Evidence of couples’ BMI and its influence on birth weight is limited and contradictory. Therefore, this study aims to assess the association between couple’s preconception BMI and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA)/large for gestational age (LGA) infant, among over 4·7 million couples in a retrospective cohort study based on the National Free Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2016 in China. Among the live births, 256 718 (5·44 %) SGA events and 506 495 (10·73 %) LGA events were documented, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, underweight men had significantly higher risk (OR 1·17 (95 % CI 1·15, 1·19)) of SGA infants compared with men with normal BMI, while a significant and increased risk of LGA infants was obtained for overweight and obese men (OR 1·08 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·09); OR 1·19 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·20)), respectively. The restricted cubic spline result revealed a non-linear decreasing dose–response relationship of paternal BMI (less than 22·64) with SGA. Meanwhile, a non-linear increasing dose–response relationship of paternal BMI (more than 22·92) with LGA infants was observed. Moreover, similar results about the association between maternal preconception BMI and SGA/LGA infants were obtained. Abnormal preconception BMI in either women or men were associated with increased risk of SGA/LGA infants, respectively. Overall, couple’s abnormal weight before pregnancy may be an important preventable risk factor for SGA/LGA infants.
Polypropylene plastic (PP) was chosen as additives for the preparation of activated carbon (AC), considering that PP promotes pore formation during the preparation of AC. When the addition ratio of PP was 20%, AC having a maximum specific surface area of 1916.1 m2/g was prepared. Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis exhibited the types of functional groups on the surface of AC, such as–OH, C=O, C–C, and –CH. The SEM analysis revealed the formation of disordered pores over the AC. Furthermore, iodine value of the AC is 1460 mg/g. Additionally, adsorption test revealed the AC is suitable for adsorbing methylene blue (MB). The adsorption equilibrium data of MB onto AC were most suitable for Redlich–Peterson model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the single layer was 476.88 mg/g, indicating that AC has high adsorption capacity. The kinetic data fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model.
Mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and precipitation isotope records for the Holocene were obtained from the analysis of the relative distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers and compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf waxes from a sediment core from Aweng Co on the western Tibetan Plateau (WTP). Our results indicate that the Indian monsoon mainly influenced Aweng Co during the Holocene. During the early Holocene, when summer insolation was at a maximum, the monsoonal influence was strong and the climate was warm and wet. Both the summer and winter insolation were relatively weak, and Aweng Co was cool and dry during the middle Holocene (6–3 ka), indicating a weakening of the Indian monsoon. The southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and relatively low atmospheric methane content may have contributed to the middle Holocene cooling on the WTP. During the late Holocene, with a further increase in winter insolation and decrease in summer insolation, the summer monsoon weakened and the MAAT on the WTP gradually increased. Depleted leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios during the late Holocene can be attributed to accelerated glacier melting because of the elevated MAAT.
The deformation behaviors (flow behavior, power dissipation, dynamic recrystallization, and microstructure evolution) of a typical powder metallurgy nickel-based superalloy were investigated in compression tests at temperatures range of 1020–1140 °C and strain rates range of 0.001–1.0 s−1 with the true strains of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, respectively. The efficiency of power dissipation can be shown by the power dissipation maps at different true strains. The results showed that true strain had a great effect on the power dissipation. Besides, the deformed microstructures were investigated. The processes of microstructure evolution at different deformation temperatures and strain rates are different. The continuous dynamic recrystallization takes place at the deformation condition of 1080 °C/0.1 s−1. The fine and uniform dynamic recrystallized grains gradually replace the pre-existing grains with the increase of true strain. The discontinuous dynamic recrystallization takes place at the deformation condition of 1110 °C/0.001 s−1. The fine dynamic recrystallized grains grow up and a part of new fine grains appear in the dynamic recrystallized grains because of the periodic dynamic recrystallization.
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