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Korean pine is an economically essential afforestation species limited by the unreasonable collection of cones, indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides and pest damage. This study aimed to determine whether spraying bacterial or fungal solutions affected insect pests, cone development, and the seed quality of Korean pine Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. The experiment was conducted in a forest plantation in Linkou County (Heilongjiang, China) in 2019. Four fungal strains and one bacterial strain were applied during the flowering phase of Korean pine. The results after a year and a half of study indicated that a high concentration of Bacillus thuringiensis 223176 promoted cone development, increased seed weight, and reduced the proportion of damaged cones. Under this treatment, there were 15.873% damaged cones; the seed weight reached 0.829 g, and there were 82.738% fully developed cones. Trees treated with the second most effective strain, Beauveria bassiana 122077, had 30.556% damaged cones and an average seed weight of 0.810 g. Leucanicillium antillanum 01 performed the worst in this study. The seed weight was only 0.775 g, and the damaged and fully developed cones were 52.444 and 41.773%, respectively. In summary, spraying bacterial or fungal solutions during the flowering stage of Korean pine positively impacted seed quality and effectively decreased damage by the lepidopteran species that feed on the cones and seeds in this study.
The stability of dynamic fracture is a fundamental and challenging problem in the field of materials science. The grain size effect on dynamic fracture instability in polycrystalline graphene under tear loading is explored via theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. The fracture stability phase diagram in terms of grain size and crack propagation velocity is obtained, and three regions of crack propagation are identified: stable, metastable, and unstable. For grain size above 2 nm, there exists a critical velocity beyond which fracture instability occurs, and this critical velocity depends linearly on grain size. Decreasing grain size leads to reduced characteristic time for correction of crack path deflection, which plays a dominant role in dynamic fracture instabilities. However, when grain size is below 2 nm, there does not exist a critical velocity for steady propagation of cracks due to discontinuous effects. Our results also provide a valuable insight into dynamic fracture of polycrystalline graphene as well as other 2D and quasi-2D materials.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplemental vitamin D3 (VD3) on P absorption and utilisation as well as its related mechanisms in the small intestine of broilers. A total of 384 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were assigned randomly into four treatments following a completely randomised design with a 2 (dietary non-phytate P (NPP) contents: 0·43 and 0·22 %)×2 (dietary VD3 supplemental levels: 0 and 87·5 μg/kg) factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted for 22 d. The results showed that P contents in serum from the hepatic portal vein and tibia ash of broilers were higher (P<0·05) for 0·43 % NPP than for 0·22 % NPP. The type IIb Na-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NaP-IIb) protein expressions in the duodenum and ileum were higher (P<0·05) also for 0·43 % NPP than 0·22 % NPP. Supplementation of VD3 enhanced (P<0·05) tibia P retention rate and type III Na-dependent phosphate cotransporter (PiT)-1 protein expression in the duodenum of all broilers. Moreover, VD3 supplementation decreased (P<0·002) mortality and increased (P<0·02) serum P content from the hepatic portal vein after 4 h of feeding, tibia ash content, tibia ash P content and protein expressions of NaP-IIb and PiT-1 in the jejunum of broilers fed diet with 0·22 % NPP. Thus, dietary supplemental VD3 promoted intestinal P absorption and bone P utilisation, and this effect might be associated with enhanced PiT-1 levels in the duodenum and PiT-1 and NaP-IIb levels in the jejunum respectively when dietary NPP is limiting.
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