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The mumps resurgence has frequently been reported around the world in recent years, especially in many counties mumps vaccines have been widely used. This study aimed to describe the spatial epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Jiangsu, and provide a scientific basis for the implementation and adjustment of strategies to prevent and control mumps. The epidemiological characteristics were described with ratio or proportion. Spatial autocorrelation, Tango's flexible spatial scan statistics, and Kulldorff's elliptic spatiotemporal scan statistics were applied to identify the spatial autocorrelation, detect hot and cold spots of mumps incidence, and aggregation areas. A total of 172 775 cases were reported from 2004 to 2020 in Jiangsu. The general trend of mumps incidence is declining with a bimodal seasonal distribution identified mainly in summer and winter, respectively. Children aged 5–10 years old are the main risk group. A migration trend of hot spots from southeast to northwest over time was found. Similar high-risk aggregations were detected in the northwestern parts through spatial-temporal analysis with the most likely cluster time frame around 2019. Local medical and health administrations should formulate and implement targeted health care policies and allocate health resources more appropriately corresponding to the epidemiological characteristics of mumps.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive overview of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtypes and to investigate temporal and geographical trends of the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Chinese and English articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 were systematically searched. Pooled HIV-1 prevalence was calculated, and its stability was analysed using sensitivity analysis. Subgroups were based on study time period, sampling area and prevalence. Publication bias was measured using Funnel plot and Egger's test. A total of 68 independent studies that included HIV-1 molecular investigations were eligible for meta-analysis. Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE (57.36%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 53.76–60.92) was confirmed as the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype among MSM in China. Subgroup analysis for time period found that CRF01_AE steadily increased prior to 2012 but decreased during 2012–2016. Further whereas CRF07_BC increased over time, B/B′ decreased over time. CRF55_01B has increased in recent years, with higher pooled estimated rate in Guangdong (12.22%, 95% CI 10.34–13.17) and Fujian (8.65%, 95% CI 4.98–13.17) provinces. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in China has changed across different regions and periods. HIV-1 strains in MSM are becoming more complex. Long-term molecular monitoring in this population remains necessary for HIV-1 epidemic control and prevention.
Pure single-crystalline bismuth (III) sulfide (Bi2S3) nanowires with lengths of the long and short axes being 1.58–1.75 μm and 40 nm were prepared by a simple surfactant-assisted reflux method in the presence of thioacetamide, which served as both the sulfur source and a “soft template” in the formation of bismuth sulfide nanostructures. The effects of different surfactant, surfactant molecular weight, solvent medium, and sulfur source on the morphology, structure, and phase composition of the as-prepared Bi2S3 products were discussed. The formation of long Bi2S3 nanowires was probably via the mechanism of pyrolysis of bismuth (III) sulfide complexes dimer and continuous growth of crystalline nuclei along rod-shaped micelles originated from “soft-template” of polyethylene glycol (PEG-800). Besides, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopic (UV-Vis), and photoluminescent (PL) Bi2S3 band features indicated that the nanowires have excellent optical properties, in the optical field of potential applications.
In this paper, we consider the asymptotic behaviour for the non-local parabolic problem
with a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition, where λ > 0, p > 0 and f is non-increasing. It is found that (a) for 0 < p ≤ 1, u(x, t) is globally bounded and the unique stationary solution is globally asymptotically stable for any λ > 0; (b) for 1 < p < 2, u(x, t) is globally bounded for any λ > 0; (c) for p = 2, if 0 < λ < 2|∂Ω|2, then u(x, t) is globally bounded; if λ = 2|∂Ω|2, there is no stationary solution and u(x, t) is a global solution and u(x, t) → ∞ as t → ∞ for all x ∈ Ω; if λ > 2|∂Ω|2, there is no stationary solution and u(x, t) blows up in finite time for all x ∈ Ω; (d) for p > 2, there exists a λ* > 0 such that for λ > λ*, or for 0 < λ ≤ λ* and u0(x) sufficiently large, u(x, t) blows up in finite time. Moreover, some formal asymptotic estimates for the behaviour of u(x, t) as it blows up are obtained for p ≥ 2.
Fabrication of bulk heterojunctions with well-ordered arrays of organic and inorganic semiconductors is a promising route to increasing the efficiency of polymer photovoltaic cells. In such structures, almost all excitons formed are close enough to the organic–inorganic interface to be dissociated by electron transfer, all charge carriers have an uninterrupted pathway to the electrodes, and polymer chains are aligned to increase their charge carrier mobility. Furthermore, ordered structures are interesting because they are relatively easy to model. Studies of ordered cells are likely to lead to better design rules for making efficient photovoltaic cells.
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