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Low gestational weight gain (GWG) is a known risk factor of low birthweight. Although studies have previously examined the associations between GWG and birthweight, the period-specific effects of low GWG in each trimester remain unclear. This study aimed to quantify the trimester-specific direct effects of low GWG in Japanese women on birthweight. Using perinatal data from a cohort study, we analyzed pregnant women delivered at an obstetrics/gynecology hospital between October 2006 and May 2010. We focused on women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) below 25 kg/m2. The exposure was low GWG. The gestation period was subdivided into trimesters, and the direct effects of low trimester-specific GWG on birthweight were estimated using marginal structural models. These models were guided by a direct acyclic graph that incorporated potential confounders, including pre-pregnancy BMI, age, smoking during pregnancy, height, and parity. We analyzed 563 women and their families. The mean cumulative GWG by the end of the first, second, and third trimesters was 0.9, 6.2, and 10.7 kg, respectively. Approximately 14.0% of the women gained total weight below the range recommended by Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The direct effects of low GWG on birthweight were 65.9 g (95% confidence interval: 11.4, 120.5), −195.4 g (−263.4, −127.4), and −188.8 g (−292.0, −85.5) for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Insufficient weight gain in the second and third trimesters had a negative impact on birthweight after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and other covariates.
Cerebrovascular accidents due to Moyamoya disease, a disorder characterized by arterial stenosis at the base of the brain accompanied by typical net-like collateral vessels, occurred in two young Japanese women with Graves' disease when they were in thyrotoxicosis. In one patient, a second attack of cerebral infarction occurred with the recurrence of thyrotoxicosis. Association of Moyamoya disease and Graves' thyrotoxicosis is rare and the pathegenetic relationship is discussed.
The capability of discharge-pumped vacuum ultraviolet F2 molecular laser for laser annealing of heavily ion implanted semiconductor was demonstrated for the first time using Se+ heavily ion implanted GaAs. Cr-doped semi-insulationg GaAs wafers were used as the substrates, and the Se+ implantation energy and dose were controlled to 100 keV and 1× 1015 cm-2, respectively. Samples were annealed using a F2 molecular laser ( wavelength = 157 nm ) with a single pulse ( width ~ 20 ns ) in the energy density range from 200 to 800 mJ/cm2 in a nitrogen atmosphere. In addition, furnace annealing was done on separate samples at 850 ºC for 20 minutes in a purified hydrogen atmosphere for comparison. Characterization of the samples was carried out using Raman scattering and ellipsometry. The laser annealed samples exhibited intense Raman scattering LO phonon peaks whose intensity increased with increasing laser power density, whereas the furnace annealed samples exhibited a very weak LO phonon peak. It was demonstrated for the first time that VUV photons can be very effective in annealing ion implantation damage as compared with conventional furnace annealing. The behavior of Raman scattering spectra as a function of laser energy density was explained quantitatively by a “spatial correlation” model. The model made it possible to estimate the average size of the recovered crystal regions in samples for any given laser energy density.
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