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Embolic beads for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) should possess radiopacity and biodegradability at the same time, to be visualized in a body under fluoroscopy and CT scanning to avoid complicating disease. In this study, we fabricated radiopaque and biodegradable beads composed of Lipiodol (LPD) (ethiodized oil) and polycaprolactone (PCL), a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer. LPD/PCL beads were first fabricated with a home-made microfluidic device. By changing the flow-rate ratio in the microfluidic device, the mean diameter of LPD/PCL beads could be well controlled. The radiopacity was evaluated by the fluoroscopic imaging and the CT number measurements. Furthermore, the biodegradability was evaluated by collecting the weight loss data of LPD/PCL immersed in lipase/PBS solution and PBS. The results showed that LPD/PCL beads obtained in this study had sufficient radiopacity and biodegradability, which would be an alternative embolic agent for TACE.
We report on the first results from our pilot observation of nearby galaxies with Hyper Suprime-Cam. We have observed two galaxies with mass similar to that of the Milky Way Galaxy and measured the abundance of their satellite galaxies in order to address the missing satellite problem outside of the Local Group. We find that (1) the abundance of dwarf galaxies is smaller by a factor of two than the prediction from one of the current hydro-dynamical simulations and (2) there is a large halo to halo scatter. Our results highlight the importance of a statistical sample of nearby galaxies to address the missing satellite problem.
The charge transport properties critically depend on the degree of ordering of the chains in the solid state as well as on the density of chemical or structural defects. In general, goodelectronic performance requires strong electronic coupling between adjace nt molecules in the solid-state that yield strong intermolecular π-overlap. Herein, we newly designed and synthesized organic semiconducting materials having both aryl (Ar) and perfluoroaryl (FAr) as substituents for organic electronics along with molecular packing control. Regarding this molecular design, we hypothesized and expected that the Ar and FAr substituents would induce well-defined π-π stacking structure of charge transport units for high performance organic electronics devices.
Directionally solidified alloys in the Ru-Mn-Si system exhibit a particular microstructure including columnar compositional variation due to the formation of many different chimney-ladder phases along the growth direction. Despite the existence of the compositional variation, the crystal orientations of the neighboring chimney-ladder phases are preserved. Over the compositional interfaces, the metal sublattice is considered to be continuous while the Si sublattice is not. Heat treatment of the directionally solidified alloy with the nominal composition of Ru0.10Mn0.90Si1.732 at 1100°C coarsens the compositional domains so as to reduce the density of the compositional interfaces. The values of the thermal conductivity increase with the decrease in the density of the compositional interfaces whereas those of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are almost unchanged after the heat treatment. It is considered that the thermoelectric properties of the chimney-ladder compounds in the Ru-Mn-Si system can be enhanced by introducing a high density of the compositional interfaces.
The B2 intermetallic compound RuAl has a melting temperature above 2000 °C and is a candidate for high temperature structural applications. A large extension of the B2 phase field is found in the Ru-Al-Cr system as was documented by the characterization of arc-melted and heat treated alloys. Two compositions consisting of Ru-35Al-19Cr and Ru-20Al-38Cr (at. %) were directionally solidified in an optical floating zone furnace. Depending upon the processing conditions, single phase, polycrystalline, B2 microstructures could be produced. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was measured from room temperature to 1250 °C for the Ru-20Al-38Cr alloy, and an average value of 11×10-6 K-1 was found. Additionally, the thermal conductivity was measured as 27 W/mK at room temperature for the Ru-20Al-38Cr B2 alloy and as 89 W/mK for binary RuAl.
Effects of vibration ball-milling of a powdered mixture of two gels,
prepared from mixing ZrO2 andTiO2 sols, on
crystallization processes during heating are studied in order to elucidate
enhanced mechanochemical reactions with the aid of hydroxyl groups.
TiO2 (anatase) and ZrO2 (tetragonal) crystallized
at 698 K and 712 K, respectively, when heating non-milled gel mixture at 10
K min1 in air. Few reactions between the two phases were detected
below 1023 K. After vibro-milling a powdered gel mixture at room temperature
for 3 to 30 h, ZrTiO4 (orthorhombic) crystallized directly from
non-crystalline precursors on heating to 1023 K. The fraction of
crystallizedZrTi04, determined by Raman spectroscopy,
increased linearly with increasing the index of micro-homogeneity for
non-heated gels. We suggest that short-range ordering of ZrTiO4
rather than crystallization of individual oxides occurs through the
non-thermal atomic movement between different metallic species under
A series of systematic trials to improve the light emission efficiency has been made on thin film visible a-SiC LEDs. A wide variety of the approaches, such as a superlattice structure, p-i-n/p-i-n tandem structure, an efficient injection electrode with a wide-gap layer etc., have been done. From the results, two practically available new technologies for bright LEDs have been developed, that is; a) a hot carrier injection structure by inserting a highly- resistive layer between p-and i- or i- and n-layers and b) a wide-gap highly-conductive p-type injector layer prepared by ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) CVD deposition. With these trials, the brightness of yellow LEDs have been increased by more than one order of magnitude to be about 5cd/m2
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