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We report detections of thermal X-ray line emission and proper motions in the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946, the prototype of the small class of synchrotron dominated SNRs. Based on deep XMM-Newton observations, we find clear line features including Ne Lyα, Mg Heα, and Si Heα from the central portion of the remnant. The metal abundance ratios suggest that the thermal emission originates from core-collapse SN ejecta arising from a relatively low-mass (≲20 M⊙) progenitor. In addition, using XMM-Newton observations on a 13 yr time interval, we have measured expansion in the southeastern rim to be ~0.75″ yr−1 or ~3500 km s−1 at a distance of 1 kpc. Given this, we derive an upstream density to be ~0.01 cm−3, compatible with the lack of thermal X-rays from the shocked ambient medium. We also estimate the age of the remnant to be ~1200–1600 yr, roughly consistent with the idea that RX J1713.7-3946 is the remnant of SN 393.
Ultrasonic spray-assisted mist deposition techniques have been developed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly deposition method for oxide and organic thin films. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a variety of oxide thin films having unique functions, such as Cr2O3, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and Al2O3 thin films, has been demonstrated as well as high-quality ZnO and Ga2O3 films ever reported. In addition to the films deposition by the CVD process, the deposition of organic material thin films from the source solution has also been achieved; as examples we have shown the patterned deposition of water-soluble fluorescent polymers with a metal mask. This may substitute the spin-coating technique and contribute to increase the source consumption efficiency in the thin film deposition. We appeal that the mist deposition is a unique and promising technique as a green chemical route for film deposition.
The present study investigated the effects of the sexual maturity of oocyte donors on in vitro maturation (IVM) and the parthenogenetic developmental capacity of fresh minke whale oocytes. The effects of cytochalasin B (CB) pretreatment and two types of cryoprotectant solutions (ethylene glycol (EG) or ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide (EG + DMSO)) on the in vitro maturation of vitrified immature whale oocytes were compared, and the developmental capacity of vitrified immature whale oocytes following IVM and intracytoplasmic sperm injection examined (ICSI). The maturation rate did not differ significantly with sexual maturity (adult, 60.9%; prepubertal, 53.1%), but the parthenogenetic activation rate of oocytes from adult donors (76.7%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of oocytes from prepubertal donors (46.4%). The maturation rates after vitrification and warming were not significantly different between the EG (22.2%) and EG + DMSO groups (30.2%), or between the CB-treated (30.4%) and non-CB-treated groups (27.3%). These results indicate that parthenogenetic activation of in vitro matured oocytes from adult minke whales was superior to that from prepubertal whales, but that the developmental capacity of the whale oocytes after parthenogenetic activation or ICSI was still low. The present study also showed that CB treatment before vitrification and two kinds of cryoprotectants did not improve the IVM rate following the vitrification of immature whale oocytes.
Using an interspecies microinsemination assay with bovine oocytes, it was examined whether centrosomes of Antarctic minke whale spermatozoa function as the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC). Bull and rat spermatozoa were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes were subjected to immunostaining against α-tubulin 4–6 h after intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of 5 mM dithiothreitol-treated spermatozoa. Aster formation occurred from whale spermatozoa (33%) and bull spermatozoa (33%), but very little from rat spermatozoa (3%). Activation treatment for the microinseminated oocytes with 7% ethanol + 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in a similar proportion of oocytes forming a whale sperm aster (35% vs 27% in the non-treated group; 4 h after ICSI) but a significantly larger aster (ratio of aster diameter to oocyte diameter, 0.57 vs 0.30 in the non-treated group). These results indicate that the centrosome introduced into bovine oocytes by whale spermatozoa contributes to the MTOC and that assembly of the microtubule network is promoted by oocyte activation.
Germinal-vesicle-stage oocytes enclosed with compact cumulus cell layers (COCs) were recovered from adult or prepubertal minke whale ovaries, and were vitrified in a solution containing 15% ethylene glycol, 15% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose using either a Cryotop or an open-pulled straw (OPS) as the cryodevice. The post-warm COCs with normal morphology were cultured for 40 h in a 390 mosmol in vitro maturation medium, and oocytes extruding the first polar body were considered to be matured. The proportion of morphologically normal COCs after vitrification and warming was higher when the COCs were cryopreserved by Cryotop (adult origin, 88.4%; prepubertal origin, 80.8%) compared with the OPS (adult origin, 67.7%; prepubertal origin, 64.2%). The oocyte maturation rate was higher in the adult/Cryotop group (29.1%) compared with those of the prepubertal/Cryotop group (14.4%), the adult/OPS group (14.3%) and the prepubertal/OPS group (10.6%). These results indicate that the Cryotop is a better device than the OPS for vitrification of immature oocytes from adult minke whales.
This study was performed to establish an individual bovine oocyte-IVP system using a chemically defined simple medium (mSOFaa containing 1 mg/ml polyvinyl alcohol: PVA) and to investigate the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during oocyte maturation on in vitro maturation, fertilization and embryonic development. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were collected from bovine ovaries and were matured in mSOFaa containing PVA (control medium) supplemented with 0, 1, 10 or 50 ng/ml of EGF. Two further groups (TCM199 and mSOFaa, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum were also included. In this study, mSOFaa containing PVA were used as a basic medium for fertilization and embryo development in vitro. Experiments were conducted in both group- and individual-IVP systems. In the group-IVP system, the proportion of matured oocytes (MII) in the control medium (62.7%±5.0%) was significantly (p<0.05) lower than in all other treatments, and in the individual-IVP system, the addition of 1 ng/ml EGF significantly (p<0.05) increased the maturation rate (1 ng/ml EGF vs control: 76.2%±5.4% vs 57.1%±14.4%). The addition of EGF did not affect the proportions of penetrated and normally fertilized oocytes in either individual- or group-culture systems. In the group-IVP system, no significant difference among treatments was found in the rate of blastocyst formation, whereas in the individual-IVP system the control medium supplemented with 10 ng/ml EGF resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) higher the rate of blastocyst formation (20.0±5.2%) than that in the control medium (6.2%±3.5%). These results indicate that bovine oocytes can successfully develop to blastocysts in an individual-IVP system using a single chemically defined medium, and that the group-IVP system also resulted in a similar level of blastocyst formation to that in a standard multiple-media system in our laboratory. The effect of EGF during oocyte maturation medium differed depending on whether embryos were cultured individually or in groups.
The present study aimed to determine the relationship among changes in the number of preantral follicles and concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A) and estradiol-17β (E2) in the fetal heart, umbilical cord and maternal blood. Primordial follicles had already appeared in a 20 cm fetus and primary follicles were observed in a 50 cm fetus. In a 70 cm fetus, the number of primordial and primary follicles increased rapidly and secondary follicles were present. The concentrations of LH and FSH did not change between 20 cm and 160 cm in fetal length. When the fetal length became >70 cm, serum levels in the fetus, umbilical cord and mothers, and E2 levels in umbilical cord increased synchronously (p<0.05). These results showed increases in the number of preantral follicles in the Antarctic minke whale fetal ovary along with fetal growth during the early gestation period. These findings suggest that the change in preantral follicles was associated with changes in the concentration of steroids in early gestation periods. The changes in steroid concentrations in the fetal and umbilical cord blood and the increased number of preantral follicles were coincident at around 70 cm in fetal length, whereas the growth and differentiation of primordial and primary follicles appeared to be independent of FSH and LH.
GaN ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated on a freestanding GaN substrate with low dislocation density. The resulting dark current density was below 1 nA/cm-2 at -8 V reverse bias, which was about 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of a similar detector made on a sapphire substrate. Moreover, the ideality factor was nearer to unity than the device on a sapphire substrate. In addition, by comparing the GaN-based device to a commonly used Si photodetector, we found that the GaN device had a lower signal-to-noise ratio and greater temperature stability. Therefore, we found a drastic reduction of dark current by using GaN freestanding substrates and so the GaN substrate produced a more effective detector than the sapphire substrate.
Characterizations of transparent Schottky barrier GaN and AlGaN UV detectors in the vacuum UV (VUV) and soft X-ray (SX) region using synchrotron radiation are described. In the GaN UV detectors, the responsivity achieved about 0.05 A/W at 95 eV (13 nm). Thus, their device performance is shown between 3.4 and 100 eV (10 and 360 nm). Furthermore, the high responsivity spectra were realized by using AlGaN Schottky UV detectors consisting of Al0.5Ga0.5N on AlN epitaxial layer.
Little is known about the characteristics of fertilisation events in minke whales. Cryopreserved minke whale oocytes and spermatozoa do not fertilise in a standard IVF. This study was conducted to investigate the pronucleus formation ability of cryopreserved minke whale oocytes and their subsequent development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In experiment 1, frozen-thawed minke whale immature oocytes were cultured for in vitro maturation (IVM) in a maturation medium (TCM199) supplemented with either porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH)/estradiol-17β(E2) or pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). After 120 h of IVM, oocyte survival was examined before ICSI, and showed no significant difference in morphological normality (24-36%) between the two IVM media. Two-cell embryos (two oocytes from 21 sperm-injected oocytes) were obtained when the maturation medium was supplemented with pFSH/E2 or PMSG/hCG. In experiment 2, cryopreserved maturing oocytes were investigated for the effects of repeat-culture (2 h or 24 h) on survival before ICSI. Pronuclear formation and development were examined for the effects of sperm pretreatment with dithiothreitol (DTT) and oocyte activation with ethanol at ICSI. A frequency of 49-69% of frozen-thawed maturing oocytes was used for ICSI. Although oocyte activation did not produce a significant difference in survival, pronucleus formation and embryonic development, 2- and 4-cell cleaved oocytes were observed after injection of sperm pretreated with DTT.
Characterization of Schottky barrier UV detectors with a comb-shaped electrode and a transparent electrode for VUV region using synchrotron radiation was carried out. These Schottky type detectors are effective to operate in UV and VUV light (50<l >360 nm). In particular, the latter realizes high responsivity (0.01 A/W for VUV light) and no photoemission of Au and GaN. The penetration depth for VUV light was estimated to 0.01 m. So the VUV light was absorbed in near the surface of i-GaN layer or the interface of Au and i-GaN layer.
This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using bovine oocytes for a heterologous fertility test by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to compare the pronuclear formation of ram, bull and minke whale spermatozoa after injection into bovine oocytes. Bovine oocytes were cultured in vitro for 24 h and those with a polar body were selected for ICSI. Frozen-thawed semen from the three species were treated with 5 mM dithiothreitol for 1 h and spermatozoa were killed by storing them in a -20 °C refrigerator before use. ICSI was performed using a Piezo system. Three experiments were designed. In experiment 1, a higher (p < 0.05) male pronuclear formation rate was found in the oocytes injected with ram (52.6%) or bull (53.4%) spermatozoa than with minke whale spermatozoa (39.1%). In experiment 2, sperm head decondensation was detected at 2 h after ICSI in the oocytes injected with a spermatozoon of each species. Male pronuclei were first observed at 4 h in the oocytes injected with ram or bull spermatozoa and at 6 h in oocytes injected with minke whale spermatozoa. The mean diameters of male pronuclei derived from both whale and bull spermatozoa were larger than those from ram spermatozoa (30.4 μm and 28.3 μm vs 22.4 μm, p < 0.005). The mean diameter of female pronuclei in the oocytes injected with whale spermatozoa was also larger than with ram spermatozoa (29.3 μm vs 24.7 μm, p < 0.05). The development of male and female pronuclei was synchronous. In experiment 3, ethanol-activated oocytes injected with a spermatozoon from any of the three species achieved significantly higher (p < 0.05-0.001) cleavage rates than control oocytes. Blastocyst formation was only observed when bull spermatozoa were used. The results of this study indicate that dead foreign spermatozoa can participate in fertilisation activities in bovine oocytes after ICSI.
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