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In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
Improvement of photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) is discussed in terms of electron-path and ion-path. In order to make electron path, we focused on passivation of TiO2 surface states which are observed by thermally stimulated current (TSC). The TiO2 surface was well-passivated with dye molecules under pressurized CO2 atmosphere. It was found that DSC cells prepared by a CO2 process (Cell-CO2) had higher efficiency than those prepared by a conventional dipping process (Cell-DIP) and the higher efficiency was associated with low TiO2-surface state, high electron diffusion coefficient and long electron life time in TiO2 for the Cell-CO2. In addition, dye-staining under pressurized CO2 atmosphere had advantages over a conventional dipping process on rapid dye-uptake and less dye aggregation. In order to fabricate ion-path in solidified electrolyte, we focused on surface modification of nano-materials. Surface of nano-materials such as TiO2-nanoparticles and porous alumina films were modified with imidazolium iodide moieties consisting of long alkyl chains which render surface-molecules self-organized. Redox-species are concentrated on the self-organized molecules and make ion-path. We propose quasi-solid electrolyte system consisting of two layers having different charge carrier concentration to keep high photoconversion efficiencies even after solidification.
In the SELenological and ENgineering Explorer (SELENE) project which is the Japanese lunar program to be launched in 2003 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), we measure angular distance between a radio transmitter on a relay satellite, that on the Moon and quasars by differential VLBI and determine amplitudes of the physical librations, gravitational harmonic coefficients of the Moon and lunar ephemeris with an accuracy one or two orders higher than before in cooperation with 4-way Doppler measurements and two-way Doppler and ranging measurements using the lunar orbiter and the relay satellite. We are proposing another selenodetic mission, In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement (ILOM) to study lunar rotational dynamics by direct observations of the lunar physical libration from the lunar surface with an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond in a post-SELENE project which will be launched about three years after SELENE. Year-long trajectories of the stars provide information on various components of the physical librations and we will also try to detect the lunar free librations in order to investigate the lunar mantle and the liquid core.
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