The zygote is the first cell of a multicellular organism. In most angiosperms, the zygote divides asymmetrically to produce an embryo-precursor apical cell and a supporting basal cell. Zygotic division should properly segregate symbiotic organelles, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. In this study, we revealed the real-time dynamics of the principle source of ATP biogenesis, mitochondria, in Arabidopsis thaliana zygotes using live-cell observations and image quantifications. In the zygote, the mitochondria formed the extended structure associated with the longitudinal array of actin filaments (F-actins) and were polarly distributed along the apical–basal axis. The mitochondria were then temporally fragmented during zygotic division, and the resulting apical cells inherited mitochondria at higher concentration compared to the basal cells. Further observation of postembryonic organs showed that these mitochondrial behaviours are characteristic of the zygote. Overall, our results showed that the zygote has spatiotemporal regulation that unequally distributes the mitochondria.