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The hydrobaric effect on photoactivity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) fabricated by cathodic deposition in an aqueous solution was evaluated in this study. When the applied pressure was increased to 35 MPa, the water-splitting performance was improved by almost fourfold of the performance of the TiO2 prepared at atmospheric pressure. The surface states effect was significant in the deposited TiO2, which was exploited to affect the charges recombination of TiO2, and thereby enhance the resultant photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance. The hydrobaric cathodic deposition could be extended to fabrication of other metal oxides to eliminate the negative influence from the high-temperature process.
This paper presents a robust reliability analysis method for systems of multimodular redundant (MMR) controllers using the method of partitioning and parallel processing of a Markov chain (PPMC). A Markov chain is formulated to represent the N distinct states of the MMR controllers. Such a Markov chain has N2 directed edges, and each edge corresponds to a transition probability between a pair of start and end states. Because N can be easily increased substantially, the system reliability analysis may require large computational resources, such as the central processing unit usage and memory occupation. By the PPMC, a Markov chain's transition probability matrix can be partitioned and reordered, such that the system reliability can be evaluated through only the diagonal submatrices of the transition probability matrix. In addition, calculations regarding the submatrices are independent of each other and thus can be conducted in parallel to assure the efficiency. The simulation results show that, compared with the sequential method applied to an intact Markov chain, the proposed PPMC can improve the performance and produce allowable accuracy for the reliability analysis on large-scale systems of MMR controllers.
Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50·3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465·5 (sem 1290·4) v. 4950·9 (sem 1689·3) mm3, P < 0·001). Inoculation with La reduced the severity of colonic carcinogenesis caused by CT-26 cells, such as level of colonic involvement and structural abnormality of epithelial/crypt damage. Moreover, La enhanced apoptosis of CT-26 cells both in dorsal-flank tumour and segmental orthotopic colon cancer, and the mean counts of apoptotic body were higher in mice pre-inoculated with La (P < 0·05) compared with untreated mice. La pre-inoculation down-regulated the CXCR4 mRNA expressions in the colon, MLN and extra-intestinal tissue, compared with untreated mice (P < 0·05). In addition, La pre-inoculation reduced the mean fluorescence index of MHC class I (H-2Dd, -Kd and -Ld) in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that probiotics La may play a role in attenuating tumour growth during CT-26 cell carcinogenesis. The down-regulated expression of CXCR4 mRNA and MHC class I, as well as increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue, indicated that La may be associated with modulating the cellular response triggered by colon carcinogenesis.
Here we describe a doping approach that enables selective and variable doping on graphene. The doping level reflected in the successive shift of the Raman G mode can be progressively changed by varying the coverage of molecular adsorption on graphene. We make use of lattice defects which serve as anchor groups for the non-covalent functionalization on graphene to enhance molecule adsorption on defective sites at the elevated processing temperatures and also orbital overlap between graphene and adsorbates (melamine). Low density of defects, which can be monitored by seeing the intensity ratio of the D to G mode in the Raman spectra, was generated by exposing graphene to short Ar plasma pulses, followed by dopant adsorption. The controllable creation of defects makes the precise doping on graphene feasible. Systematic characterizations by Raman scattering show that holes are transferred to graphene, with the doping level depending on the surface coverage of melamine. The charge transfer is also identified by the downshift of the charge neutrality point in the transfer characteristics.
In this work, the charge-trapping distributions of polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) structure are studied. The trapping energy level of SiNx films with different composition ratio deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were first characterized by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Moreover, using F-N/CHE program and charge pumping techniques, the vertical location and the lateral distribution of programmed charges are investigated in the nitride films with different composition ratio. The study offers strong evidence that the density of charge-trapping levels in the Si-rich nitride is higher than the standard nitride. A simple qualitative model and calculation explains that the trapping level distributions in the SiNx films are shallower by increasing relative Si-content. Furthermore, we have observed the nitride trap vertical location was changed by adjusted Si/N composition ratio. And the lateral distribution of hot electron programmed charges in the modified nitride is broader than that in the standard nitride because it offered more charge-trapping sites and shallower charge-trapping levels. In summary, the study can help researchers to understand the nitride charge-trapping mechanism and the analysis of optical/electrical characteristics.
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