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Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to depressive disorder, and adolescents with both present poor outcomes. However, evidence for the safety of concomitantly using a methylphenidate (MPH) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) among adolescent ADHD patients is limited, a literature gap aimed to address through this investigation.
We conducted a new-user cohort study using a nationwide claims database in South Korea. We identified a study population as adolescents who were diagnosed both ADHD and depressive disorder. MPH-only users were compared with patients who prescribed both a SSRI and a MPH. Fluoxetine and escitalopram users were also compared to find a preferable treatment option. Thirteen outcomes including neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal, and other events were assessed, taking respiratory tract infection as a negative control outcome. We matched the study groups using a propensity score and used the Cox proportional hazard model to calculate the hazard ratio. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted in various epidemiologic settings.
The risks of all the outcomes between the MPH-only and SSRI groups were not significantly different. Regarding SSRI ingredients, the risk of tic disorder was significantly lower in the fluoxetine group than the escitalopram group [HR 0.43 (0.25–0.71)]. However, there was no significant difference in other outcomes between the fluoxetine and escitalopram groups.
The concomitant use of MPHs and SSRIs showed generally safe profiles in adolescent ADHD patients with depression. Most of the differences between fluoxetine and escitalopram, except those concerning tic disorder, were not significant.
The concurrent incidence of autoimmune comorbidities in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is known. However, the association between OCD and related autoimmune skin diseases (ASDs) has not been well studied.
This study aimed to investigate the association between OCD and the risk of ASDs.
To assess the risk of developing ASDs, we recruited 44 324 patients with OCD and 177 296 matched controls from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A Cox regression model was used for the analyses.
After adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of ASDs among the patients with OCD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 6.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.43-7.45) was found when compared to the controls. Statistically significant associations were found between OCD and seven individual ASDs, including psoriasis (aHR: 12.52; 95% CI: 8.78-17.85), lichen planus (aHR: 27.22; 95% CI: 13.09-56.60), alopecia areata (aHR: 13.69; 95% CI: 9.38-19.98), autoimmune bullous diseases (aHR: 4.30; 95% CI: 2.03-9.11), hidradenitis suppurativa (aHR: 29.95; 95% CI: 3.35-267.62), vitiligo (aHR: 9.35; 95% CI: 5.35-16.32), and lupus erythematosus (aHR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.52-2.91).
Patients with OCD had an increased risk of developing ASDs compared to matched controls. Further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
The retention of patients under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an indication for the effectiveness of the therapy. We aimed to explore the relation between mortality and the cumulative MMT duration.
A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using Taiwan Illicit Drug Issue Database (TIDID) and National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) during 2012–2016. We included 9149 and 11 112 MMT patients as the short and long groups according to the length of their cumulative MMT duration, 1–364 and ⩾365 days, respectively. The risk of mortality was calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent exposure to MMT, and the survival probability was plotted with the Kaplan-Meier curve.
The mortality rates were 2.51 and 1.51 per 100 person-years in the short and long cumulative MMT duration groups, respectively. After adjusting for on or off MMT, age, sex, marital status, education level, maximum methadone dose, and comorbidities (human immunodeficiency virus, depression, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, alcoholic liver disease, and cardiovascular disease), the long group had a lower risk of death (hazard ratio = 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.75) than the short group. Increased risk was observed in patients with advanced age, being male, unmarried, infected by HIV, HCV, and HBV, and diagnosed with depression, ALD, and CVD. Causes of death were frequently related to drug and injury.
Longer cumulative MMT duration is associated with lower all-cause and drug-related mortality rate.
Network approach has been applied to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify network structures of remitters and non-remitters in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) at baseline and the 6-month follow-up.
Participants (n = 252) from the Korean Early Psychosis Study (KEPS) were enrolled. They were classified as remitters or non-remitters using Andreasen's criteria. We estimated network structure with 10 symptoms (three symptoms from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, one depressive symptom, and six symptoms related to schema and rumination) as nodes using a Gaussian graphical model. Global and local network metrics were compared within and between the networks over time.
Global network metrics did not differ between the remitters and non-remitters at baseline or 6 months. However, the network structure and nodal strengths associated with positive-self and positive-others scores changed significantly in the remitters over time. Unique central symptoms for remitters and non-remitters were cognitive brooding and negative-self, respectively. The correlation stability coefficients for nodal strength were within the acceptable range.
Our findings indicate that network structure and some nodal strengths were more flexible in remitters. Negative-self could be an important target for therapeutic intervention.
Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.
Family study can provide estimates of overall genetic influences on a particular trait because family relationships provide accurate measures of average genetic sharing. However, evidence of genetic contributions to skin phenotypes is limited, which may preclude genetic studies to identify genetic variants or to understand underlying molecular biology of skin traits. This study aimed to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to selected dermatologic phenotypes, that is, to melanin index, sebum secretion, and skin humidity level in a Korean twin-family cohort. We investigated more than 2,000 individuals from 486 families, including 388 monozygotic twin pairs and 82 dizygotic twin pairs. Variance component method was used to estimate genetic influences in terms of heritability. Heritability of skin melanin index, sebum secretion, and skin humidity (arm and cheek) were estimated to be 0.44 [95% CI 0.38–0.49], 0.21 [95% CI 0.16–0.26], 0.13 [95% CI 0.07–0.18], and 0.11 [95% CI 0.06–0.16] respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Our findings suggest that genetics play a major role on skin melanin index, but only mild roles on sebum secretion and humidity. Sebum secretion and skin humidity are controlled predominantly by environmental factors notably on shared environments among family members. We expect that our findings add insight to determinants of common dermatologic traits, and serve as a reference for biologic studies.
Solution-processed hole contact layers (HCLs) of metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) films improve performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs), but have thus far required harsh post-deposition thermal or plasma treatments. Here, we describe a general method to synthesize suspensions of ultrasmall (1–2 nm) MoO3, WO3, NiOx, and CoOx NPs in n-butanol. Spin-coated metal oxide NP films with no post-deposition treatment exhibit high work function and ionization energy consistent with the oxidation states of the metal cations. Metal oxide NP HCLs demonstrate performance matching those of reference conventional and inverted OPVs containing PEDOT:PSS and evaporated MoO3.
We demonstrate improved compatibility of poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layer with acid-sensitive materials by addition of a simple base, NaOH or NH4OH, to the aqueous suspension to increase pH. Addition of NaOH to the acidic PEDOT:PSS allowed the deposition of PEDOT:PSS on top of an inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene):ZnO nanoparticle blend hybrid photovoltaic device, and improved device performance due to preservation of the ZnO electron acceptor. To quantitatively investigate the impact of base addition to hole transport layer properties and device performance, we deposited PEDOT:PSS with different pH values on inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction devices. We find that NaOH modification results in a substantial work function decrease and series resistance increase. In contrast, the volatile NH4OH leaves PEDOT:PSS with minimal changes in film properties and device performance.
Multiaxial deformation of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 metallic glass was investigated by instrumented indentation tests with a spherical indenter. Contrary to the elastic–rigid-plastic behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), indentation pressure showed a significant increase with increasing indentation strain, and it was ascribed to a rapid transition of the plastic constraint factor (PCF). However, it was impossible to measure the PCF values from the indentation pressures in the Zr-based BMG because information on uniaxial flow stress was insufficient due to the limited flow strain of 2.2%. Here we developed a PCF assessment method using a relative residual depth hf/hmax, which was experimentally confirmed by adopting it to spherical indentations of a steel sample having well-known flow properties. Flow properties of the BMG were calculated using the new PCF assessment method, and the effects of the materials pileup and low strain indentations on PCF and flow properties were discussed.
Since in instrumented indentation the contact area is indirectly measured from the contact depth, the natural and unavoidable roughness of real surfaces can induce some errors in determining the contact area and thus in calculating hardness and Young's modulus. To alleviate these possible errors and evaluate mechanical properties more precisely, here a simple contact model that takes into account the surface roughness is proposed. A series of instrumented indentations were made on W and Ni samples whose surface roughness is intentionally controlled, and the results are discussed in terms of the proposed model.
Conventional nanoindentation testing generally uses a peak penetration depth of less than 10 % of thin-film thickness in order to measure film-only mechanical properties, without considering the critical depth for a given thin film-substrate system. The uncertainties in this testing condition make hardness measurement more difficult. We propose a new way to determine the critical relative depth for general thin-film/substrate systems; an impression volume analyzed from the remnant indent image is used here as a new parameter. Nanoindents made on soft Cu and Au thin films with various indentation loads were observed by atomic force microscope. The impression volume calculated from 3D remnant image was normalized by the indenter penetration volume. This indent volume ratio varied only slightly in the shallow regime but decreased significantly when the indenter penetration depth exceeded the targeted critical relative depth. Thus, we determined the critical relative depth by empirically fitting the trend of the indent volume ratio and determining the inflection point. The critical relative depths for Cu and Au films were determined as 0.170 and 0.173, respectively, values smaller than 0.249 and 0.183 determined from the hardness variation of the two thin films. Hence the proposed indent volume ratio is highly sensitive to the substrate constraint, and stricter control of the penetration depth is needed to measure film-only mechanical properties.
We demonstrate the functionalization of 2-D photonic crystal structures operating at ∼ 1.5 μm with colloidal PbSe quantum dots and examine the modified photoluminescence from the functionalized photonic crystal. Using spin coating and airbrushing, monodisperse PbSe quantum dots were deposited from hexanes on lithographically patterned GaAs photonic crystal substrates. The effectiveness of patterning the PbSe quantum dots via standard liftoff process was examined. The near-IR photoluminescence spectra of quantum dot-functionalized photonic crystals were studied. We found that the photoluminescence peak became attenuated by approximately a factor of five and exhibited a narrow peak width (50 nm vs. 120 nm) compared to PbSe deposited on unpatterned GaAs, suggesting that there is some coupling between the quantum dots and the photonic crystal. Future work to improve the coupling and detection efficiency is proposed.
The nanoindentation technique has great promise in evaluating mechanical properties such as nanohardness and elastic modulus at micrometer or nanometer scales, since sample preparation and testing procedures are very easy. However, the nanohardness and elastic modulus cannot be directly related to basic material flow properties. Here a novel and simple experimental/computational method is proposed to extract stress-strain curves based on finite-element modeling (FEM) of nanoindentation. This method was verified for bulk Al by comparing the stress-strain curves extracted with those obtained from tensile testing, and was applied to Al thin films (0.5 μm and 1 μm) deposited on a Si substrate.
A new host-guest electro optic (EO) polymer, in which a chromophore can be reacted with the polymer main chain during poling to give the corresponding side-chain EO polymer, has been prepared for improving EO effect and its thermal stability. Polyisoimide (PII) synthesized from 2, 2-bis (4-aminophenyl) hexafluoropropane and oxydiphthalic anhydride and Disperse Red 1 (DR1) were used as a host and a guest, respectively. A model compound reaction and Infrared spectra of the host-guest film after annealing at various temperatures show that the reaction between the isoimide groups in PII and the hydroxyl groups in DR1 occurs around 140 °C. The glass transition temperatures of the resulting EO polyamic aicd ester-imide copolymer with 0, 10, 20 and 30 wt. % of chromophore concentration were 275, 219, 160, and 124 °C, respectively. The EO coefficient obtained at a wavelength of 1.55 νm was 5.3 and 10.5 pm/V from the EO polymer film with 20 and 30 wt. % DR1. The EO signals exhibited only a slight decay at high temperature due to the chemical reaction between the host and guest during poling.
Uniform and reproducible silicon tip arrays were fabricated using the reactive ion etching followed by the re-oxidation sharpening. Molybdenum was then coated on the some of the silicon tip array. Current-voltage characteristics and current fluctuations were measured in the high vacuum environment. Field emission currents were proved by the Fowler-Nordheim plot studies.
Strip-shaped diamond-tip field emitter array was fabricated by using the transfer mold technique. The sharp turn-on characteristic was observed from the current-voltage measurement of the fabricated diamond-tip field emitter array. The turn-on characteristic of the diamond-tip field emitter array was compared with that of a flat diamond film. High emission current density was obtained from the diamond-tip field emitter array. The threshold voltage of the diamond-tip field emitter array was lower than that of a flat diamond film.
The surface structure of Si(111) post-annealed at 980 °C after nitrogen ion induced nitridation has been investigated by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The LEED and STM results indicated the formation of ordered domain of quadruplet structure in the silicon nitride layer. The LEED pattern taken from the nitrated Si(111) surface showed a coexistence of 7×7 domain with quadruplet one. In the STM image taken from the same surface, a three directional periodicity with a periodic arrangement of white protrusions was observed in the local area of silicon nitride island and its symmetry directions were rotated about 10° with respect to those of Si(111) surface. In addition to the quadruplet structure of the silicon nitride island, meta-stable structures such as 9×9, c(4×2), and 2×2 as well as 7×7 phase boundaries were observed to have been formed on the Si(111) surface during the rapid cooling of nitrated surface from the post-annealing temperature of 980 °C. The investigation of the surface structure of nitrated Si(111) showed that the surface nitrated at high temperature had better epitaxial silicon nitride layer than that post-annealed after nitridation at room temperature.
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