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To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013-2014).
A population-based case-control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western, and Picky, the proportion in the controls and cases were 0.30/0.32/0.16/0.23 and 0.29/0.26/0.11/0.33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterized by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption on specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods, and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soy foods, and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR=1.42, 95%CI=1.06, 1.90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR=1.44, 95%CI=1.01, 2.05) but not premenopausal women. The Western class characterized by high-protein, -fat, and -sugar foods, the Chinese traditional class characterized by typical consumption of soy foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA capture the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population, could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of breast cancer.
To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China.
A cross-sectional study.
A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50–64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18–34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35–49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50–64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31).
Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
Image stitching is important for the perception and manipulation of undersea robots. In spite of a well-developed technique, it is still challenging for undersea images because of their inevitable appearance ambiguity caused by the limited light in the undersea environment, and local disturbance caused by moving objects, ocean current, etc. To get a clean and stable background panorama in the undersea environment, this paper proposes an undersea image-stitching method by introducing graph-based registration and blending procedures. Specifically, in the registration procedure, matching the features in each undersea image pair is formulated and solved by graph matching, to incorporate the structural information between features. In the blending procedure, an energy function on the indirect graph Markov random field is proposed, which takes both image consistency and neighboring consistency into consideration. Coincidentally, both graph matching and energy minimization can be mathematically formulated by integer quadratic programming problems with different constraints; the recently proposed graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure is used to optimize both problems. Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world undersea images witness the effectiveness of the proposed method.
In Democratic People's Republic of Korea, only Plasmodium vivax malaria is prevalent, which is divided into two forms – long incubation form and short form. Among malaria cases reported in a year, long form accounts for 69% and short form 31%. Incubation period of short form ranges from 10 to 29 days (average 17 days) and long from 5·5 to 16 months (average 8–13 months). The most relapses (90%) were reported from May to September – malaria transmission season in the country. Result from preliminary mass chemoprevention in small size of population before transmission season to find appropriate method showed high protective efficacy in two regimens – one regimen given primaquine 0·25 mg base kg−1 day−1 for 14 days (95%) and another 0·5 mg base kg−1 day−1 for 7 days (94%). During the mass chemoprevention with primaquine, some adverse effects were reported but transient. We consider that mass chemoprevention with primaquine before transmission season is of great significance in disturbing the vivax malaria transmission, in which long incubation form is predominant in countries prevailing seasonal malaria.
The Korea National Health Insurance (K-NHI) has covered medical devices with low cost-effectiveness evidence by what is known as the Selective Benefit (SB) since December of 2013 as a type of conditional coverage. Most medical devices in the SB category are new technology and have higher levels of clinical effectiveness and/or functions than those in the benefit category, but they are characterized as being expensive. We compare the K-NHI medical device coverage system to those in Japan and Taiwan so as to be more informed about how to cover and set prices for new medical devices.
We searched for materials related to medical device coverage or the reimbursement systems of three countries (Korea, Japan, and Taiwan). National health insurance laws, policy reports, and the websites of the Ministries of Health of the respective countries, for instance, were also reviewed.
The NHI systems of Korea, Japan, and Taiwan have several similarities with regard to their medical device benefit lists. They reimburse listed medical devices separately although they cover them basically by including procedures or a diagnosis-related group (DRG) fee. The K-NHI reimburses for medical devices with low cost-effectiveness using the actual market medical price, similar to other medical devices in the benefit category. However, there are no detailed rules regarding how to set prices for these devices. Every listed medical device is covered at the notified price in Japan, but the prices of new medical devices with improved functions can add 1 -100 percent of the price to the notified price. The prices of devices related to new medical procedures are determined by cost-accounting methods. The NHI service in Taiwan compensates for medical devices which are alternates but clinically improved types through a balance billing method.
The NHI systems in Japan and Taiwan set prices with regard to reimbursements for new medical devices separately, specifically for devices which are advanced clinically or functionally but expensive. The K-NHI must consider establishing a pricing or reimbursement system for new medical devices through the discussion with stakeholders for reasonable reimbursements and decreasing the financial burden on the K-NHI.
The relation between climate change and historical rhythms has long been discussed. However, this type of study still faces the lack of high-resolution data concerning long-term socio-economic processes. In this study, we collected 1586 items of direct and proffered evidence from 29 Chinese history books. We used semantic analysis to reconstruct a quantitative series of the social vicissitudes of the past 2000 yr with a 10-yr resolution to express the phase transition of the social vicissitudes of the dynasties in China. Our reconstruction demonstrates that social vicissitudes have clear cyclical features on multiple time scales. Analysis of the association of social rise and fall with climate change indicates that temperature displayed more significant effects on social vicissitudes in the long term, while precipitation displayed more significant effects on the social vicissitudes in the short term. There are great overlaps between social and climatic variables around the predominant or periodic bands. Social rise mostly occurred in the centennial-scale warm periods, whereas social decline mostly occurred in the centennial-scale cold periods. Under warm-wet conditions, social rise occurred over 57% of the time; under cold-dry conditions, the social decline occurred over 66% of the time.
A congruent melting compound LiNaV2O6 has been synthesized by high-temperature solution reaction and it has been grown with sizes up to 11 × 6 × 2 mm3 by the top-seeded growth method for the first time. LiNaV2O6 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, with a = 10.184(2) Å, b = 9.067(2) Å, c = 5.8324(11) Å, β = 108.965(14)°. UV–Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum of LiNaV2O6 shows that it has a wide transmittance range from 385 to 2500 nm. The ab initio calculations show that the birefringence of LiNaV2O6 is 0.136 at 589.3 nm. Therefore, LiNaV2O6 may be a new birefringent material. Based on the analysis of the relationship between crystal structure and linear optical properties, it is found that the large birefringence is attributed to the particular arrangement of V–O anionic groups.
Enhancement of heat transport across a fluid layer is of fundamental interest as well as great technological importance. For decades, Rayleigh–Bénard convection has been a paradigm for the study of convective heat transport, and how to improve its overall heat-transfer efficiency is still an open question. Here, we report an experimental and numerical study that reveals a novel mechanism that leads to much enhanced heat transport. When vertical partitions are inserted into a convection cell with thin gaps left open between the partition walls and the cooling/heating plates, it is found that the convective flow becomes self-organized and more coherent, leading to an unprecedented heat-transport enhancement. In particular, our experiments show that with six partition walls inserted, the heat flux can be increased by approximately 30 %. Numerical simulations show a remarkable heat-flux enhancement of up to 2.3 times (with 28 partition walls) that without any partitions.
On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.
Investigations of the relationships between climate and human history often place more emphasis on the science of climate change than on understanding human socio-economic processes, and therefore suffer from superficial results and an unbalanced perspective. This is partly due to the lack of high-resolution data concerning long-term socio-economic processes. Here, we base our study of climate and society on a series of 2130-yr-long economic proxy data from China with decadal resolution. The economy was associated significantly with temperature and precipitation at the two predominant bands of 100 and 320 yr. The phase transition of economic states was influenced positively by long-term temperature change combined with triggering effects of short-term changes in precipitation. However, climatic impact on economy should not be recognized as simple causality but some driving-response relation coupled with meditation by human agency at multiple scales. A model of ‘adaptive cycles’ implies, in relative to the developing phases, climate–economy relationship during the declining phases was more easily moderated by slower processes like rigidity and faster processes like unrest. From a more-macro perspective, climatic driving for the macro-economic cycles was moderated by larger and slower processes like social memory, spatial shifting of key economic areas, and social–technical advance.
Power consumption and dissipation during electrical operation lead to a temperature rise in the package. Elevated temperature in the package structure induces thermo-mechanical stresses which may increase reliability risks. Robust and reliable package design for power systems requires comprehensive analysis of system electrical, thermal, and mechanical behavior. This paper presents a self-consistent approach for package reliability analysis with coupled electro-thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling using TCAD tools.
Blue marlin are sexually dimorphic in size-at-age and other biological characteristics. However, few studies have examined the possible impact of sexual dimorphism on the population parameters and the ratios of fishing to total mortality (the exploitation ratios) for this species. We analyzed sex-specific catch-at-length data for blue marlin collected from the Taiwanese tuna longline fishery in the northwest Pacific Ocean, ranging between 100–311 cm in eye to fork length (EFL) for females and 100–236 cm EFL for males, and show that the proportion of females in the catch (the sex ratio) increases with length, with females reaching larger body sizes than males. Minor differences in fishery sex ratios among months were observed. Growth parameters, length structures, and natural mortality rates were estimated to differ between males and females, while fishing mortality rates were found to be similar. Nevertheless, the exploitation ratio for females was higher than that for males. We suggest that growth parameters and natural mortality rates should be sex-specific when assessments for sexually-dimorphic species such as blue marlin are conducted, and that management of blue marlin fisheries could be developed based on size limit regulations for large individuals.
Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima–media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors. Subjects (n 572; women n 362, men n 210) were recruited for the present study. An overnight urine sample was provided by each subject on their usual diet to quantify urinary concentrations of daidzein and equol. Far-wall IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound in the right carotid at two sites, carotid bulb (CB-IMT) and common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), and fasting serum lipids were measured. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated with a FFQ, and soya isoflavone intake derived from the FFQ was assessed. Of the 572 subjects, the proportion of equol excretors on their usual diet was 25·0 % (n 143). Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG ( − 38·2 (95 % CI − 70·4, − 5·9) %, P = 0·012) and CCA-IMT ( − 4·9 (95 % CI − 9·7, − 0·3) %, P = 0·033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes ( − 5·4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT ( − 16·2 %, P = 0·035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1·5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only.
HbUEP, an ubiquitin extension protein gene from latex of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) was cloned and sequenced using a differentially ethphon-induced expressed cDNA subtraction library. The cDNA had 771 bp nucleotides, comprising a 226 bp 3′ untranslated region (UTR), 77 bp 5′UTR and a 468 bp open reading frame encoding a 156 amino acid peptide. Southern blotting analysis showed that this gene was a low copy number gene in the H. brasiliensis genome. Within 24 h after application of ethphon, the gene was expressed weakly in both control and latex sampled at 6 h, and strongly in latex sampled at 12 h, showing that this gene expression could be regulated by ethphon. Ethphon could increase the latex yield in H. brasiliensis. It is suggested that the HbUEP gene may be involved in the regulation of ethphon-induced high latex yield in H. brasiliensis.
Reports about the role of autoimmunity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are inconsistent. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of IgG from patients with ALS on motor neurons in a physiological-like surrounding.
Using affinity chromatography, IgG from six ALS patients, four disease controls and five healthy subjects was purified. Organotypic spinal cord cultures, which conserve the structure of the spinal cord in a horizontal plane and are suitable for studies with long-term treatment, were used and IgG with different concentrations ranging from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL was added to the culture medium. Ventral motor neuron survival was evaluated by morphology and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry staining. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in the culture medium was measured by colorimetry.
After cultures were treated with ALS IgG for three weeks, the number and morphology of motor neurons showed little change. In addition, there was no significant difference in lactate dehydrogenase release between cultures treated with medium alone, normal control IgG, disease control IgG or ALS IgG.
The results indicate that IgG from these ALS patients was insufficient per se to induce motor neuron death in Organotypic slice cultures. However, this does not preclude the possibility that other changes may have occurred in the motor neurons. This work offered a new model to evaluate the role of IgG in the pathogenesis of ALS. Organotypic cultures contribute to study of the impact of IgG on motor neurons by mimicking physiological conditions.
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, and dysregulation of NRG1 and its ErbB receptors is implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. The present study examined the protein expression levels of NRG1β, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in the rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus following a 4-wk administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.), clozapine (10 mg/kg i.p.), or risperidone (1 mg/kg i.p.) by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that haloperidol promoted the expression of NRG1β and ErbB4, whereas clozapine inhibited NRG1β expression in the rat prefrontal cortex. Both haloperidol and clozapine significantly increased the protein levels of NRG1β and ErbB receptors in the rat hippocampus. Repeated administration of risperidone only increased the expression of NRG1β and ErbB4 in the hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate that antipsychotic drugs differentially regulate the expression of NRG1 and ErbB receptors in the rat brain, which may provide insight into the molecular basis of the pharmacological profile of antipsychotic drugs.
Cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap) has attracted much attention as a new smart electronic material to be utilized as mechanical sensors, bio compatible applications and wireless communications. The thin EAPap film has many advantages such as lightweight, flexible, dryness, biodegradable, easy to chemically modify, cheap and abundance. Also EAPap film has a good reversibility for mechanical performance, such as bending movement, under electric field. The main actuation mechanism governed by piezoelectric property can be modulated by material direction and stretching ratio during process. In this paper we present the overview as well as fabrication process of cellulose EAPap as a novel smart material. Also we propose the method to enhance the piezoelectricity, its mechanical and electromechanical properties. In addition, the fabrication of high quality metal patterns with Schottky diode on the cellulose surface is an initiating stage for the integration of the EAPap actuator and electronic components. The integration of flexible actuator and electronic elements has huge potential application including flying magic carpets, microwave driven flying insets and micro-robots and smart wall papers.
To study the relationship between exercise by the mother and breast-feeding initiation and duration, and its effect on infant growth.
A cohort study of mothers and infants, recruited at birth. Infant feeding methods were recorded in detail and breast-feeding was categorised as ‘any’ or ‘full’. Exercise levels were categorised using the metabolic equivalent tasks approach based on details of physical activity recorded in questionnaires.
Perth, Western Australia.
A total of 587 mothers were interviewed on seven occasions over a period of 12 months.
There was no difference in the means of infant weight and length changes, indicating that exercise appeared to have no significant influence on infant growth up to 52 weeks after birth (P = 0.236 and 0.974, respectively). The mother's level of exercise was not significantly associated with breast-feeding to 6 or 12 months. This applied to ‘full’ and ‘any’ categories of breast-feeding.
Exercise does not affect breast-feeding outcomes at the usual levels of activity undertaken by mothers. Breast-feeding and exercise are important for maintaining and promoting health, and this study provides reassurance to health professionals wishing to encourage mothers to continue both behaviours.