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Japan has faced a decline in fertility since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the rate of pregnancy postponement and its contributing factors, with a particular focus on economic- and COVID-19 infection-related indicators. This study used data from 768 observations of married women aged 18 to 50 years with pregnancy intentions. The data were obtained from two rounds of a large web-based survey conducted by the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey (JACSIS) in 2020 and 2021. A generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was employed, as well as Poisson regression models for sub-sample analysis divided by year to estimate the year differential magnitude of the contributing factors’ impacts. Approximately 20% of married women with childbearing intentions postponed their childbearing. The analyses revealed that declining income and anxiety about future household finances were significantly related to delayed childbearing, while fear of COVID-19 and infection rate were not. Additionally, the adverse effects of unfavourable economic conditions were stronger in 2021. Notably, age did not influence the decision of pregnancy postponement. Older women postponed pregnancy just as much as younger women. In conclusion, this study confirmed that the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly its related adverse economic conditions, contributed to Japan’s current baby bust. Considering that advanced maternal age is already common in Japan, this decreased fertility may result in the long-term negative consequence of further population decline.
Yarkoni's analysis clearly articulates a number of concerns limiting the generalizability and explanatory power of psychological findings, many of which are compounded in infancy research. ManyBabies addresses these concerns via a radically collaborative, large-scale and open approach to research that is grounded in theory-building, committed to diversification, and focused on understanding sources of variation.
The apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium in compacted bentonites were investigated at various concentrations of NaHCO3. Purified sodium bentonite Kunipia-F® was compacted with a jig into cylindrical pellets 10 mm in diameter and 10 mm high with dry densities of 1.0 to 1.6 Mg/m3. Each bentonite pellet was inserted into an acrylic resin column and saturated with carbonated water containing 0.1 to 1.0 M NaHCO3 for more than 1 month. The face of the bentonite specimen was spiked with 5 μL of 1.0 M SrCl2 tracer solution. After a few weeks, the strontium diffusion profiles were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium decreased slightly with increasing dry density. NaHCO3 concentrations of 0.5 M decreased the apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium by half at a dry density of 1.0 Mg/m3 and quarter at 1.6 Mg/m3. At a higher NaHCO3 concentration of 1.0 M, no strontium diffusion profile was observed, whereas white precipitate was observed on the face of the bentonite specimen where it was spiked with strontium. This white precipitate could be strontianite, which is strontium carbonate. Diffusion experiments using cesium were carried out for comparison, and the presence of carbonate had no effect on the apparent diffusion coefficient.
Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
To identify predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to determine whether hyperglycaemic progression rates differ among antipsychotics in regular clinical practice.
We recruited 1166 patients who initially had normal or prediabetic glucose levels for a nationwide, multisite, l-year prospective cohort study to determine predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression. We also examined whether hyperglycaemic progression varied among patients receiving monotherapy with the six most frequently used antipsychotics.
High baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension significantly predicted hyperglycaemic progression. The six most frequently used antipsychotics did not significantly differ in their associated hyperglycaemic progression rates over the 1-year observation period.
Clinicians should carefully evaluate baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension and perform strict longitudinal monitoring irrespective of the antipsychotic used.
Declaration of interest
The authors report no financial or other relationship that is relevant to the subject of this article. Relevant financial activities outside the submitted work are as follows. I.K. has received honoraria from Astellas, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Nippon Chemiphar, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; has received research/grant support from AbbVie GK, Asahi Kasei Pharma, Astellas, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; and is a member of the advisory boards of Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma. Y.T. has received speaker's honoraria from Dainippon-Sumitomo Pharma, Otsuka, Meiji-Seika Pharma, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Daiichi-Sankyo Company, UCB Japan and Ono Pharmaceutical. K.U. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin. B.Y. has received speaker's honoraria from Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Janssen Pharmaceutical. J. I. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Mochida Pharma.
We analyse the chemical abundances of stars in the local group dwarf galaxies using the SAGA database. The inspection of the relationship between Eu and Ba abundances confirms an anomalously Ba-rich population in Fornax, which indicates a pre-enrichment of interstellar gas with r-process elements.
The mechanism for the precipitation of multilayer graphene was investigated with respect to the use of an Al2O3 barrier layer and Au capping layer. The Al2O3 barrier layer suppresses the dissolution of carbon into the catalyst, especially at low temperature, and assists a decrease in the density of graphene nuclei. On the other hand, the Au capping layer is beneficial to weaken the strong binding between the catalyst and the graphene carbon atoms, and enhances the surface migration of precipitated carbon adatoms. A combination of the Al2O3 barrier layer and Au capping layer is useful for the synthesis of high-quality graphene with large grains. On a sample with both layers annealed for 60 min, the area of 5-layer graphene islands is as large as 10 μm, and covers 60% of the entire surface. The Raman D/G band intensity ratio of 0.024 indicates the precipitated graphene is high quality.
Field electron emission model of hydrogen-terminated n-type diamond was discussed. Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations indicated that the electron affinity was -0.7 eV and an internal barrier of about 3.5 eV existed on the surface. Field electron emission properties depended on anode-diamond distances. Schottky barrier lowering model suggested that this internal barrier was lowered by the electric field (5.4x106 V/cm) applied onto the negative electron affinity surface of the H-terminated n-type diamond.
Measurements of the chemical composition of the snow pits at Murododaira (2450m a.s.l.), Mount Tateyama, near the coast of the Japan Sea in central Japan, were performed each spring from 2005 through 2008. The mean concentrations of nssSO42– and NO3– are higher than those in snowpack in the 1990s. The pH and nssCa2+ were usually high in the upper parts of 2–3m of snow deposited in the spring, when Asian dust (Kosa) particles are frequently transported. High concentrations of nssSO42– were detected in both the spring and winter layers. The high-nssCa2+ layers usually contained high concentrations of nssSO42–. The results show that not only Kosa particles but also air pollutants might have been transported long-range from the continent of Asia. The concentrations of peroxides were high in the new snow (precipitation particles) and granular snow (coarse grain, melt forms) layers. The peroxide concentrations in the snow layers were negatively correlated with the nssCa2+ concentrations. High peroxide concentrations may be preserved in granular snow layers having low concentrations of nssCa2+.
The present study was carried out to examine the genetic mechanism responsible for reversions to fertile phenotype detected in cytoplasmic male-sterile plants of rice. The cms-bo cytoplasm of Chinsurah boro II gave rise to male-sterility in plants without a gametophytic restorer gene (Rf1). Taichung 65 (T65A) was known to be the maintainer which carries no restorer; however, Taichun 65 preserved in our laboratory (T65B) showed partial fertility (about 8% seed set) when crossed with the male-sterile plants. Unexpectedly, the seed fertility gradually increased with repeated selfings and almost fully fertile plants were obtained in the F6 generation. The cytoplasmic substitution lines revealed that reversions to fertile phenotype resulted from mutational events at the nuclear level. The genetic experiments indicated that the partial fertility observed in the F1 hybrid was controlled by a dominant gene, Ifr1, which was carried by T65B. The results obtained suggested that Ifr1 itself was associated with instability of fertility restoration in the presence of cms-bo cytoplasm since partially fertile plants carrying Ifr1 always showed a tendency for gradual increase in fertility in the later generations. The results are also discussed in relation to a rapid genetic change through intensified gametic selection combined with instability.
In this paper, we measured the field emission properties of reconstructed P-doped diamond under various anode-diamond distances and compared with the oxidized surface. Voltage drops in the vacuum was estimated to be 4.95 and 26.6 V/μm for the reconstructed and the oxidized, respectively. Moreover, we calculated the barrier height ratio between each surface. Our data indicates the changes in electron affinity strongly affect on the field emission properties.
Electric field of less than 5 V/um is enough to extract electrons from CVD diamond, whereas field of one to two orders of magnitude higher is needed to extract electrons from metal emitter tips. Diamond has various advantages as an electron emitter in addition to the low-threshold voltage, negative electron affinity (NEA), high thermal conductivity, and high chemical stability. The difficulty in clarification of electron emission mechanism is the factor preventing diamond from being used in practical Quite a few numbers of possible mechanisms have been proposed based on conventional emission current-anode voltage (I-V) characteristics, however, difficulty remained in the determination of origin for emitting electrons. In our previous study, we have succeeded in determining the origin for lightly nitrogen (N)-doped CVD diamond by using combined x-ray photoemission spectroscopy / ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy / field emission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS/FES) system. The origin at 1.47 eV above valence band maximum (VBM) was consistent with donor level for aggregated N. The origin was at VBM for natural IIb diamond measured as a reference, indicating the emitted electrons strongly depend on the dopant In this study, the origin of emitting electrons for heavily N-doped CVD diamond was characterized by the means of combined XPS/UPS/FES. Extremely low-threshold electron emission at 0.5 V/um is still one of the lowest threshold voltages. Such a low-threshold emission may be possible if electrons are somehow injected to conduction band of diamond and emitted into vacuum through NEA surface. Hence, we strongly believe the determination of the origin for heavily N-doped CVD diamond leads to the clarification of mechanism for low-threshold electron emission from diamond. The system in which we have developed for this study consists of ultraviolet source built in an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The diamond sample could be negatively biased up to 4kV relative to the mesh grid for FES. Individual spectroscopy of XPS was performed prior to the combined spectroscopy to determine any possible contaminants on CVD diamond. Peaks referred to C1s and O1s of diamond were observed in addition to Gold, used in a mesh grid set above the sample. Combined spectroscopy of UPS/FES was then, conducted on the CVD diamond to identify the origin of field emitted electrons. The diamond was first illuminated by He I excitation for photoemission. NEA with the typical spectra shape for diamond was observed. After confirming stable operation of individual UPS, negative voltage was applied simultaneously for field emission. Exceeding threshold voltage, a sharp peak, which can be referred to field-emitted electrons appeared in addition to typical UPS spectra. The origin of emitting electrons as well as its dependence on the applied voltage will be discussed.
Electric field of less than 5 V/μm is enough to extract electrons from diamond, whereas field of one to two orders of magnitude higher is needed to extract electrons from metal emitter tips. Despite such low-threshold field, the difficulty in clarification of electron emission mechanism is the factor preventing diamond from being used in a practical use. Quite a few numbers of possible mechanisms were proposed to better understand the origin and properties of the observed emission. Most of these mechanisms were, however, based on the conventional I (Emission current)-V (Anode voltage) characteristics. Energy distribution of the field-emitted electrons is essential in direct clarification of the mechanism. In this study, combined XPS/UPS/FES system was used to characterize the electron emission mechanism of doped chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond. The results indicated successful observation of the origin of field-emitted electrons from doped CVD diamond comparison with natural diamond, used as a reference.
The polarization change invoked by bipolar pulse cycling stress (voltage cycling) was investigated in detail for a Pt/PZT/Pt ferroelectric capacitor. The remnant polarization increased after voltage cycling, then, it decreased during storage and approached to the initial value. The estimated activation energy of the decay of the gained-polarization during the storage was 0.52eV. This value suggests that the valence change between Ti3+ and Ti4+ is the key of this phenomenon. The model where Ti-related defects pin the polarization was introduced to explain the result. Based on the findings and the model, a combination of voltage cycling and storage is useful to characterize internal defects. We propose this characterization method, named voltage cycling method, as an effective way to analyze internal defects in a ferroelectric capacitor.
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