To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.
Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).
Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.
Schistosomiasis in China has been substantially reduced due to an effective control programme employing various measures including bovine and human chemotherapy, and the removal of bovines from endemic areas. To fulfil elimination targets, it will be necessary to identify other possible reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum and include them in future control efforts. This study determined the infection prevalence of S. japonicum in rodents (0–9·21%), dogs (0–18·37%) and goats (6·9–46·4%) from the Dongting Lake area of Hunan province, using a combination of traditional coproparasitological techniques (miracidial hatching technique and Kato-Katz thick smear technique) and molecular methods [quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)]. We found a much higher prevalence in goats than previously recorded in this setting. Cattle and water buffalo were also examined using the same procedures and all were found to be infected, emphasising the occurrence of active transmission. qPCR and ddPCR were much more sensitive than the coproparasitological procedures with both KK and MHT considerably underestimating the true prevalence in all animals surveyed. The high level of S. japonicum prevalence in goats indicates that they are likely important reservoirs in schistosomiasis transmission, necessitating their inclusion as targets of control, if the goal of elimination is to be achieved in China.
Microtubule analysis is of significant value for a better understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes. Although immunofluorescence microscopic techniques have proven useful in the study of microtubules, comparative results commonly rely on a descriptive and subjective visual analysis. We developed an objective and quantitative method based on image processing and analysis of fluorescently labeled microtubular patterns in cultured cells. We used a multi-parameter approach by analyzing four quantifiable characteristics to compose our quantitative feature set. Then we interpreted specific changes in the parameters and revealed the contribution of each feature set using principal component analysis. In addition, we verified that different treatment groups could be clearly discriminated using principal components of the multi-parameter model. High predictive accuracy of four commonly used multi-classification methods confirmed our method. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in the analysis of microtubules in fluorescence images. Application of the analytical methods presented here provides information concerning the organization and modification of microtubules, and could aid in the further understanding of structural and functional aspects of microtubules under normal and pathological conditions.
Schistosomiasis is a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey of liver biopsies obtained from Chinese patients with chronic schistosomiasis only, or chronic schistosomiasis with a current or past history of viral hepatitis B. Both disease groups were compared with patients with no prior history or indicators of any liver disease. Analysis showed in the main, downregulation in gene expression, particularly those involved in signal transduction via EIF2 signalling and mTOR signalling, as were genes associated with cellular remodelling. Focusing on immune associated pathways, genes were generally downregulated. However, a set of three genes associated with granulocytes, MMP7, CLDN7, CXCL6 were upregulated. Differential gene profiles unique to schistosomiasis included the gene Granulin which was decreased despite being generally considered a marker for liver disease, and IGBP2 which is associated with increased liver size, and was the most upregulated gene in schistosomiasis only patients, all of which presented with hepatomegaly. The unique features of gene expression, in conjunction with previous reports in the murine model of the cellular composition of granulomas, granuloma formation and recovery, provide an increased understanding of the molecular immunopathology and general physiological processes underlying hepatic schistosomiasis.
Microtubules of cardiac myocytes depolymerize after a hypoxic insult or treatment with colchicine. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying changes in microtubule distribution when using fluorescent images. We converted fluorescence images of labeled microtubules in H9C2 cardiac myocytes to grayscale images, then filtered the images to remove any noise, and used grayscale histograms to quantify features of the images. The results show that parameters such as the mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, energy, and entropy can be used to quantitatively describe the distribution of microtubules in cells. Quantitative characteristics of microtubule distribution were similar after culturing cells under hypoxic conditions or after treatment with colchicine. These results parallel those described for neonatal rat cardiac myocytes following ischemia and hypoxia. In addition, we provide a method for internal segmentation of the cells, which revealed that microtubular depolymerization was more evident near the cell membrane following hypoxia or colchicine treatment.
Many isothiocyanates (ITC), which are available to human subjects mainly through consumption of cruciferous vegetables, demonstrate strong cancer-preventive activity in animal models. Human studies also show an inverse association between consumption of ITC and risk of cancer in several organs. Whereas earlier studies primarily focused on the ability of ITC to inhibit carcinogen-activating enzymes and induce carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes, more recent investigations have shown that ITC inhibit the proliferation of tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle progression. ITC cause acute cellular stress, which may be the initiating event for these effects. These findings shed new light on the mechanism of action of ITC and indicate that ITC may be useful both as cancer-preventive and therapeutic agents. ITC activate caspase 9-mediated apoptosis, apparently resulting from mitochondrial damage, and also activate caspase 8, but the mechanism remains to be defined. Cell cycle arrest caused by ITC occurs mainly in the G2/M phase, and both the G2 and M phases are targetted; critical G2-phase regulators, including cyclin B1, cell division cycle (Cdc) 2 and Cdc25C, are down regulated or inhibited, and tubulin polymerization and spindle assembly are disrupted. Moreover, ITC are metabolized in vivo through the mercapturic acid pathway, giving rise to thiol conjugates (dithiocarbamates). Studies show that these dithiocarbamates are similar to their parent ITC in exerting anti-proliferative activity. Taken together, dietary ITC are highly-promising anti-cancer agents, capable of targetting multiple cellular components that are important for tumour cell survival and proliferation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.