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We genotyped six SNPs in the genes of p450 family among paranoid schizophrenics and normal controls. All subjects are unrelated Han Chinese. Three showed polymorphic, and no significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies were detected between patients and controls. Thus we obtained no evidence for the involvement of the polymorphisms in paranoid schizophrenia in the population investigated.
Dysfunctions of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are two important hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Thus, genes in the pathway are candidates for schizophrenia susceptibility. Phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS), glutamine synthetase (GLUL), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GABA transaminase (ABAT) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH5A1) are five primary enzymes in glutamate and GABA synthetic and degradative pathway. In order to investigate the possible involvement of these genes in the development of paranoid schizophrenia, we genotyped 80 paranoid schizophrenics from northern China and 108 matched controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods or directly sequencing of PCR product. Seven SNPs were found to be polymorphic in the population investigated. No significant differences in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies between patients and controls were found. Therefore, we conclude the polymorphisms studied in the five genes do not play major roles in pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia in the population investigated.
We performed an association study between three SNPs in the genes of 14-3-3 family and paranoid schizophrenia. SNP rs983583 G/A in the YWHAZ gene showed significant association with paranoid schizophrenia. Our study indicated that the YWHAZ gene was a potential susceptibility gene for paranoid schizophrenia in the population studied.
Artificial Neural Network (ANN), as a potential powerful classifier, was explored to assist psychiatric diagnosis of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
Both Back-Propagation (BP) and Kohonen networks were developed to fit psychiatric diagnosis and programmed (using 60 cases) to classify neurosis, schizophrenia and normal people. The programmed networks were cross-tested using another 222 cases. All subjects were randomly selected from two mental hospitals in Beijing.
Compared to ICD-10 diagnosis by psychiatrists, the overall kappa of BP network was 0.94 and that of Kohonen was 0.88 (both P < 0.01). In classifying patients who were difficult to diagnose, the kappa of BP was 0.69 (P < 0.01). ANN-assisted CIDI was compared with expert system assisted CIDI (kappa=0.72–0.76); ANN was more powerful than a traditional expert system.
ANN might be used to improve psychiatric diagnosis.
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