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Microglia, the main immune cell of the central nervous system (CNS), categorized into M1-like phenotype and M2-like phenotype, play important roles in phagocytosis, cell migration, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. As a part of CNS, retinal microglial cells (RMC) play an important role in retinal diseases. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but also retinal neurodegeneration. RMC was regarded as a central role in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss RMC polarization and its possible regulatory factors in early DR, which will provide new targets and insights for early intervention of DR.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
The South Altyn Orogenic Belt (SAOB) is one of the most important orogenic belts in NW China, consisting of the South Altyn Continental Block and the Apa–Mangya Ophiolitic Mélange Belt. However, its Palaeozoic tectonic evolution is still controversial. Here, we present petrological, geochemical, zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic data for the Mangya plutons with the aim of establishing the Palaeozoic tectonic evolution. We divide the Early Palaeozoic magmatism in the Apa–Mangya Ophiolitic Mélange Belt into four episodes and propose a plate tectonic model for the formation of these rocks. During 511–494 Ma, the South Altyn Ocean (SAO) was in a spreading stage, and some shoshonite series, I-type granitic rocks were generated. From 484 to 458 Ma, the oceanic crust of the SAO subducted northward, accompanied by large-scale magmatic events resulting in the generation of vast high-K calc-alkaline series, I-type granitic rocks. During 450–433 Ma, the SAO closed, and break-off of the subducted oceanic slab occurred, with the generation of some high-K calc-alkaline series, I–S transitional type granites. The SAOB was in post-orogenic extensional environment from 419 to 404 Ma, and many A-type granites were generated.
The 〈001〉-textured 36Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–30Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–34PbTiO3 (36PIN–30PMN–34PT) ceramics were successfully prepared by the templated grain growth method using BaTiO3 (BT) templates with an average edge length of 10 μm and a thickness of about 0.5 μm. The highest Lotgering factor of 95% has been achieved for the textured ceramics with 5 wt% BT templates sintered at 1240 °C. The Curie temperature (TC) and dielectric constant (εr) of the textured 36PIN–30PMN–34PT ceramics were 225 °C and 2850, respectively. The piezoelectric constant d33 of the textured samples was 780 pC/N and almost 2 times higher than that of random 36PIN–30PMN–34PT samples. The planar mode electromechanical coupling coefficient kp was 59% for the textured samples. Unipolar strain-field measurements for the textured ceramics exhibited 0.34% strain at 4 kV/mm.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-parasitic activity of a pure compound from Streptomyces sp. HL-2-14 against fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and elucidate its chemical structure. By electron ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H NMR and 13C NMR), the compound was identified as amphotericin B (AmB). The in vitro trials revealed that AmB can effectively kill the theronts and tomonts of I. multifiliis with the median lethal concentration (LC50) of 0·8 mg L−1 at 30 min for the theronts and 4·3 mg L−1 at 2 h for the tomonts, respectively. AmB at 5 mg L−1 significantly reduced I. multifiliis infectivity prevalence and intensity on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and consequently decreased fish mortality, from 100% in control group to 30% in treated group. The 72 h acute toxicity (LC50) of AmB on grass carp was 20·6 mg L−1, but fish mortality was occurred when exposure to 13·0 mg L−1. These results indicated that AmB was effective in the therapy of I. multifiliis infection, but the safety concentration margin is relatively narrow. Further efforts aiming to decrease the toxicity and improve the therapeutic profile remain to be needed.
An epigenetic mechanism has been suggested to explain the effects of the maternal diet on the development of disease in offspring. The present study aimed to observe the effects of a maternal high-lipid, high-energy (HLE) diet on the DNA methylation pattern of male offspring in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed an HLE diet during gestation and lactation. The genomic DNA methylations at promoter sites of genes in the liver, mRNA and protein levels of selected genes related to lipid and glucose metabolism were measured by microarray, real-time PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that the percentage of methylated DNA in offspring from dams that were fed an HLE diet was significantly higher than that from dams that were fed a chow diet, and most of these genes were hypermethylated in promoter regions. The nuclear protein content and mRNA levels of hypermethylated genes, such as PPARγ and liver X receptor α (LXRα), were decreased significantly in offspring in the HLE group. The results suggested that the DNA methylation profile in adult offspring livers was changed by the maternal HLE diet during gestation and lactation.
The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between age and risk for depression among the old and the oldest old.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database were used to identify potential studies. The studies were divided into cross-sectional and longitudinal subsets. For each study, the numbers of the total participants, cases (for cross-sectional study), or incident cases (for longitudinal study) of depression in each age group were extracted and entered into Review Manager 4.2 software. Qualitative meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies and of longitudinal studies were performed. For prevalence and incidence rates of depression, odds risk (OR) and relative risk (RR) were calculated, respectively.
The qualitative meta-analyses showed that, compared with younger participants (above vs. below 65 years, above vs. below 70 years, above vs. below 75 years, and above vs. below 80 years), older age groups had a significantly higher risk for depression. (All of the ORs and RRs were significant.) Compared with participants aged 55–89, those aged above 90 years had no higher risk for depression. (Neither the OR nor the RR was significant.)
Despite the methodological limitations of this meta-analysis, older age appears to be an important risk factor for depression in the general elderly population (aged below 80 years), but not in the oldest population (aged above 85 years).
The mouse sperm genome is resistant to in vitro heat treatment, and embryos derived from heated sperm can support full-term embryonic development, but the blastocyst rate and implantation rate are lower compared to embryos derived from fresh sperm. In the present study, the patterns of DNA methylation, histone H4K12 (ACH4K12) acetylation, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9-TriM), and H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27-TriM) in preimplantation embryos derived from 65°C-heated sperm were investigated. Although no evident changes in global DNA methyaltion, histone H4K12 (ACH4K12) acetylation, and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9-TriM) were found, significantly lower levels of H3K27-TriM, which was thought to be one of the reasons for low efficiency of mouse cloning, were found in the inner cell mass of heated-sperm derived blastocysts. Thus, defective modification of H3K27-TriM might contribute to compromised development of embryos derived from heated sperm.
Hypoxia frequently occurs under several different cellular circumstances. Excess reactive oxygen species that are induced by hypoxia may result in cell injury and dysfunction. Recently, garlic has been found to possess some biological and pharmacological activities. The present study examined the effects of garlic saponins (GSP) on the survival of differentiated PC12 (dPC12) cells and the oxidative–antioxidant system. dPC12 cells were exposed to 2 % O2 in order to establish a neuronal insult model. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The expression of selected genes (catalase (CAT), p65 and neuron-specific class III β-tubulin) was evaluated by real-time PCR and immunoblot assays. CAT activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) concentrations were also determined. The data showed that hypoxia dramatically damaged dPC12 cells, while treatment with approximately 5 × 10− 2–10 ng/ml GSP improved cell viability, decreased LDH leakage and caused the cells to maintain neuronal-like characteristics in hypoxia. The production of MDA and 8-OH-dG was attenuated by GSP. CAT activity in dPC12 cells pretreated with GSP was higher than that of the hypoxic control. Moreover, GSP up-regulated CAT expression and decreased the total protein expression as well as the nuclear expression of p65 in hypoxic cells. These data indicate that GSP has antioxidant properties that can protect dPC12 cells from hypoxia-induced damage, which may be related to the up-regulation of CAT expression and activity as well as a decrease in the expression and nucleus distribution of p65 through effects on redox-sensitive signalling pathways.
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