To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Despite the wide recognition of language teacher educators’ contributions in the field of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), research on language teacher educators has only picked up the pace in the last decade, shedding light on their cognition, practices, and identities in relation to various personal, interpersonal, and contextual factors. This article provides a systematic and critical review of 69 empirical studies on university-based TESOL teacher educators from 2010 and 2020. A methodological review was also conducted to analyze the different research approaches employed by previous researchers. A synthesis of the identified research led to four major themes, namely: (1) a general professional state (including responsibilities, challenges and quality), (2) professional engagement (including teaching, practicum supervision, and research and publishing), (3) cognition (including beliefs, knowledge, and expertise), as well as (4) continuous learning and identity development. Through a critical discussion of the themes, the review argues against the implicit yet powerful discourse that characterizes language teacher educators as ‘supermen/superwomen’ and emphasizes the need to humanize them as whole people by recognizing their unique strengths and struggles as well as diverse learning needs. The review also proposes a new research agenda to stimulate and deepen future investigations on language teacher educators in TESOL.
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most common sexually transmitted pathogens, which can cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammation and infertility in female. In the present study, we collected the basic information, clinical results of leucorrhoea and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of patients, who were involved in both MG and CT RNA detection in West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to April 2021, ranging from 18 to 50 years old. The results showed that the infection frequencies of MG and CT were 2.6% and 6.5%, respectively. The infection rate of CT in gynaecological patients was significantly higher than that of MG (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with CT infection often had symptoms of gynaecological diseases, while patients with MG infection remain often asymptomatic. By exploring the connection between MG or CT infection and vaginal secretions, we found that the infection of MG or CT promoted to the increase of vaginal leukocytes, and CT infection exacerbated the decrease of the number of Lactobacillus in the vagina. Further analysis suggested that independent infection and co-infection of MG or CT resulted in abnormal vaginal secretion, affecting the stability of vaginal environment, which may induce vaginal diseases. Unexpectedly, our study found no association between MG or CT infection and high-risk HPV infection. In conclusion, our study explored the infection of MG and CT among women in Southwest China for the first time, and revealed that the infection of MG or CT would affect the homeostasis of vaginal environment, which laid a foundation for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MG and CT infection.
The horse played a crucial role in China through the first millennium BC, used both for military advantage and, through incorporation into elite burials, to express social status. Details of how horses were integrated into mortuary contexts during the Qin Empire, however, are poorly understood. Here, the authors present new zooarchaeological data for 24 horses from an accessory pit in Qin Shihuang's mausoleum, indicating that the horses chosen were tall, adult males. These findings provide insights into the selection criteria for animals to be included in the emperor's tomb and invite consideration of questions concerning horse breeds, husbandry practices, and the military and symbolic importance of horses in early imperial China.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), and inflammation biomarkers, and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the STROBE statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (± 3 years), week of gestation (± 1 week), and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a 79-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were -0.65 ± 1.58 for cases and -1.19 ± 1.47 for controls (P value <0.001). E-DII scores positively correlated with IFN-γ (rs = 0.194, P value = 0.001) and IL-4 (rs = 0.135, P value = 0.021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (P trend <0.001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2.18 times the lowest tertiles (95% CI = 1.52, 3.13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30% (95% CI= 18%, 43%, P value <0.001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11), IL-4 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.54) and TGF-β (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LWM-GSs) play a crucial role in determining wheat flour processing quality. In this work, 35 novel LMW-GS genes (32 active and three pseudogenes) from three Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) accessions were amplified by allelic-specific PCR. We found that all LMW-GS genes had the same primary structure shared by other known LMW-GSs. Thirty-two active genes encode 31 typical LMW-m-type subunits. The MZ424050 possessed nine cysteine residues with an extra cysteine residue located in the last amino acid residue of the conserved C-terminal III, which could benefit the formation of larger glutenin polymers, and therefore may have positive effects on dough properties. We have found extensive variations which were mainly resulted from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) among the LMW-GS genes in Ae. umbellulata. Our results demonstrated that Ae. umbellulata is an important source of LMW-GS variants and the potential value of the novel LMW-GS alleles for wheat quality improvement.
Little is known about the effects of dietary patterns on prevalent pre-eclampsia in Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the odds of pre-eclampsia among Chinese pregnant women. A 1:1 age- and gestational week-matched case–control study was conducted between March 2016 and February 2019. A total of 440 pairs of pre-eclampsia cases and healthy controls were included. Dietary intakes were assessed by a seventy-nine-item FFQ and subsequently grouped into twenty-eight distinct groups. Factor analysis using the principal component method was adopted to derive the dietary patterns. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the associations of dietary patterns with prevalent pre-eclampsia. We identified four distinct dietary patterns: high fruit-vegetable, high protein, high fat-grain and high salt-sugar. We found that high fruit-vegetable dietary pattern (quartile (Q)4 v. Q1, OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·92, Ptrend = 0·013) and high protein dietary pattern (Q4 v. Q1, OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95, Ptrend = 0·011) were associated with a decreased odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women. Whereas high fat-grain dietary pattern showed a U-shaped association with pre-eclampsia, the lowest OR was observed in the third quartile (Q3 v. Q1, OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·98, Ptrend = 0·111). No significant association was observed for high salt-sugar dietary pattern. In conclusion, pregnancy dietary pattern characterised by high fruit-vegetable or high protein was found to be associated with a reduced odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women.
The mumps resurgence has frequently been reported around the world in recent years, especially in many counties mumps vaccines have been widely used. This study aimed to describe the spatial epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Jiangsu, and provide a scientific basis for the implementation and adjustment of strategies to prevent and control mumps. The epidemiological characteristics were described with ratio or proportion. Spatial autocorrelation, Tango's flexible spatial scan statistics, and Kulldorff's elliptic spatiotemporal scan statistics were applied to identify the spatial autocorrelation, detect hot and cold spots of mumps incidence, and aggregation areas. A total of 172 775 cases were reported from 2004 to 2020 in Jiangsu. The general trend of mumps incidence is declining with a bimodal seasonal distribution identified mainly in summer and winter, respectively. Children aged 5–10 years old are the main risk group. A migration trend of hot spots from southeast to northwest over time was found. Similar high-risk aggregations were detected in the northwestern parts through spatial-temporal analysis with the most likely cluster time frame around 2019. Local medical and health administrations should formulate and implement targeted health care policies and allocate health resources more appropriately corresponding to the epidemiological characteristics of mumps.
We evaluated the distributions of dental splatters and the corresponding control measure effects with high-speed videography and laser diffraction. Most of the dental splatters were small droplets (<50 μm). High-volume evacuation combined with a suction air purifier could clear away most of the droplets and aerosols.
Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumour of the urinary system that is characterised by significant intra-tumoural heterogeneity. While large-scale sequencing projects have provided a preliminary understanding of tumour heterogeneity, these findings are based on the average signals obtained from the pooled populations of diverse cells. Recent advances in single-cell sequencing (SCS) technologies have been critical in this regard, opening up new ways of understanding the nuanced tumour biology by identifying distinct cellular subpopulations, dissecting the tumour microenvironment, and characterizing cellular genomic mutations. By integrating these novel insights, SCS technologies are expected to make powerful and meaningful changes to the current diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer through the identification and usage of novel biomarkers as well as targeted therapeutics. SCS can discriminate complex heterogeneity in a large population of tumour cells and determine the key molecular properties that influence clinical outcomes. Here, we review the advances in single-cell technologies and discuss their applications in cancer research and clinical practice, with a specific focus on bladder cancer.
Extrinsic mortality risks calibrating fast life history (LH) represent a species-general principle that applies to almost all animals including humans. However, empirical research also finds exceptions to the LH principle. The present study proposes a maternal socialization hypothesis, whereby we argue that the more human-relevant attachment system adds to the LH principle by up- and down-regulating environmental harshness and unpredictability and their calibration of LH strategies. Based on a longitudinal sample of 259 rural Chinese adolescents and their primary caregivers, the results support the statistical moderating effect of caregiver–child attachment on the relation between childhood environmental adversities (harshness and unpredictability) and LH strategies. Our theorizing and findings point to an additional mechanism likely involved in the organization and possibly the slowdown of human LH.
The optimization of laser pulse shapes is of great importance and a major challenge for laser direct-drive implosions. In this paper, we propose an efficient intelligent method to perform laser pulse optimization via hydrodynamic simulations guided by the genetic algorithm and random forest algorithm. Compared to manual optimizations, the machine-learning guided method is able to efficiently improve the areal density by a factor of 63% and reduce the in-flight-aspect ratio by a factor of 30% at the same time. A relationship between the maximum areal density and ion temperature is also achieved by the analysis of the big simulation dataset. This design method has been successfully demonstrated by the 2021 summer double-cone ignition experiments conducted at the SG-II upgrade laser facility and has great prospects for the design of other inertial fusion experiments.
High-Mg andesites (HMAs) are crucial for the reconstruction of plate tectonics, continental margin formation and lithospheric evolution. In this study, we present new fossil age, whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd isotope data on the newly discovered Dundunshan Group HMAs in the Dundunshan area of the Beishan orogen (central-southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt). The Dundunshan HMA samples are characterized by high MgO (6.47–7.02 wt%) contents and high Mg# values (67.27–68.77), with SiO2 (58.57–62.13 wt%), Al2O3 (14.49–16.07 wt%) and CaO (5.05–6.24 wt%) resembling typical HMAs. The Dundunshan HMA samples are calc-alkaline and strongly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), with slightly negative Eu anomaly and high-field-strength element (HFSE) depletions. Their (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7041–0.7057) and ϵNd(t) (3.73–5.59) indicate that the Dundunshan HMAs were mainly formed by the interactions between subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. Fossil evidence and published radiometric age data constrain the formation of the Dundunshan HMAs to early Late Devonian time. Sedimentological features of the Middle Devonian Sangejing Formation and regional tectonic correlation suggest that the Hongliuhe–Niujuanzi–Xichangjing Ocean in the Dundunshan area was likely closed during late Middle Devonian time, and that the Dundunshan HMAs were formed in a post-collision extensional setting.
Accurate predetermination of the quantum yield ratio (QA/QD) and the extinction coefficient ratio (KA/KD) between acceptor and donor is a prerequisite for quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We here propose a method to measure KA/KD and QA/QD by measuring the excitation–emission spectra (ExEm-spectra) of one dish of cells expressing m (≥3) kinds of FRET constructs. The ExEm-spectra images are unmixed to obtain the weight maps of donor (WD), acceptor (WA), and acceptor sensitization (WS). For each cell, the frequency distribution plots of the WS/WD and WS/WA images are fitted by using a single-Gaussian function to obtain the peak values of WS/WD (SD) and WS/WA (SA). The statistical frequency-SD/SA plots from all cells are fitted by using a multi-Gaussian function to obtain the peak values of both SD and SA, and then the ranges of WS/WD (RSD) and WS/WA (RSA) for each FRET construct are predetermined. Based on the predetermined RSD and RSA values of FRET constructs, our method is capable of automatically classifying cells expressing different FRET constructs. Finally, the WS/WD–WA/WD plot from different kinds of cells is linearly fitted to obtain KA/KD and QA/QD values.
The incidence of gout has increased rapidly in recent years, and the suspected lack of awareness of gout among general practitioners may lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.
To assess general practitioners’ management of gout at community health service clinics in the Tongzhou district of Beijing, as well as the factors that contributed to optimal decision making.
A survey based on current guidelines for assessment and management of gout was sent to 245 general practitioners at community health service clinics in the Tongzhou district of Beijing. The questionnaire included personal information of general practitioners and ten items that addressed knowledge of gout. Our questionnaire was self-administered and distributed electronically via WeChat, and data were collected on a platform called ‘Wenjuanwang’. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19.0 software.
Totally, 216 general practitioners responded to the survey. About three-quarters (71.8%) reported having received Continuing Medical Education (CME) about gout. More than half (54.6%) reported an awareness of treat to target (T2T) for gout. However, the overall rate of good understanding of gout was only 6.5%, a basic knowledge of gout was 55.6%, and understanding about gout diagnosis and treatment was only 11.1%. The general practitioners’ understanding of basic concepts related to gout indicated that CME could improve their understanding (P < 0.05). An analysis of the general practitioners’ rate of comprehension of gout diagnosis and treatment showed that education level, CME, and familiarity with T2T could improve understandings of gout diagnosis and treatment (P < 0.05).
There are serious deficits in understandings about gout among general practitioners in the Tongzhou district of Beijing. Quality CME is needed to improve Chinese general practitioners’ management of gout.
To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12 237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007–2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013–2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6·01 (95 % CI 5·09, 6·06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR for the highest v. lowest METS-VF quartile was 5·97 (95 % CI 4·28, 8·32), with a per 1-sd increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0·0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age or BMI.
A compact four-element ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with dual polarization and dual-notched capabilities was developed and fabricated. The MIMO antenna is composed of four orthogonally placed half-cutting UWB antenna elements. This orthogonal placement improves the isolation. Furthermore, an L-shaped slot and a continuous bending slot are etched to realize the band-rejection function in the WiMAX and WLAN bands. The result shows that the antenna achieved operating bands of 2.9–16.5 GHz (140.2%, S11 < −10 dB), fully covering the UWB (3.1–10.6 GHz). The port isolation is greater than 23 dB in the frequency band of interest, excluding two rejected bands. Moreover, the MIMO antenna has excellent diversity performance, such as a low envelope correlation coefficient (<0.004), high diversity gain (approximately 10 dB), and good omnidirectional radiation characteristics.
As a neuroprogressive illness, depression is accompanied by brain structural abnormality that extends to many brain regions. However, the progressive structural alteration pattern remains unknown.
To elaborate the progressive structural alteration of depression according to illness duration, we recruited 195 never-treated first-episode patients with depression and 130 healthy controls (HCs) undergoing T1-weighted MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry method was adopted to measure gray matter volume (GMV) for each participant. Patients were first divided into three stages according to the length of illness duration, then we explored stage-specific GMV alterations and the causal effect relationship between them using causal structural covariance network (CaSCN) analysis.
Overall, patients with depression presented stage-specific GMV alterations compared with HCs. Regions including the hippocampus, the thalamus and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) presented GMV alteration at onset of illness. Then as the illness advanced, others regions began to present GMV alterations. These results suggested that GMV alteration originated from the hippocampus, the thalamus and vmPFC then expanded to other brain regions. The results of CaSCN analysis revealed that the hippocampus and the vmPFC corporately exerted causal effect on regions such as nucleus accumbens, the precuneus and the cerebellum. In addition, GMV alteration in the hippocampus was also potentially causally related to that in the dorsolateral frontal gyrus.
Consistent with the neuroprogressive hypothesis, our results reveal progressive morphological alteration originating from the vmPFC and the hippocampus and further elucidate possible details about disease progression of depression.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
We report on a theoretical and experimental study on the anisotropic diffusion of isolated prolate spheroidal particles in the presence of an aligning potential field. By analysing the microscopic stochastic equations of motion, we obtained the coarse-grained Fokker–Planck equations that govern the evolution of the probability distributions of particle orientation in various configurational spaces. In particular, we found explicit formulae for the diffusion coefficients parallel ($D_x$) and perpendicular ($D_y$) to the field direction in the long-time limit. The predicted results were experimentally validated by measuring the Brownian motions of fluid-suspended carbon nanotubes in an electric field. Good agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental results, both of which showed increasing $D_x$ and decreasing $D_y$ with increasing field strength up to a critical field strength beyond which both curves start to flatten. Our theory and experimental results provide a framework for understanding the coupling between rotation and translation in a diffusion process, and for controlling the diffusion of particles with aligning potential fields.