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A study of small-amplitude shape oscillations of a viscous compound droplet suspended in a viscous host fluid is performed. A generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated and is solved by using the spectral method. The effects of the relevant non-dimensional parameters are examined for three cases, i.e. a liquid shell in a vacuum and a compound droplet in a vacuum or in a host fluid. The fundamental mode $l=2$ is found to be dominant. There exist two oscillatory modes: the in phase and the out of phase. In most situations, the interfaces oscillate in phase rather than out of phase. For the in-phase mode, in the absence of the host, as the viscosity of the core or the shell increases, the damping rate increases whereas the oscillation frequency decreases; when the viscosity exceeds a critical value, the mode becomes aperiodic with the damping rate bifurcating into two branches. In addition, when the tension of the inner interface becomes smaller than some value, the in-phase mode turns aperiodic. In the presence of the unbounded host fluid, there exists a continuous spectrum. The viscosity of the host may decrease or increase the damping rate of the in-phase mode. The mechanism behind it is discussed. The density contrasts between fluids affect oscillations of the droplet in a complicated way. Particularly, sufficiently large densities of the core or the host lead to the disappearance of the out-of-phase mode. The thin shell approximation predicts well the oscillation of the compound droplet when the shell is thin.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case–control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a seventy-eight-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose–response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the OR of the highest quartile were 0·45 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·71, Ptrend = 0·001) for VD dietary intake and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·11, 0·60, Ptrend = 0·003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
We present an overview of the SkyMapper optical follow-up programme for gravitational-wave event triggers from the LIGO/Virgo observatories, which aims at identifying early GW170817-like kilonovae out to
distance. We describe our robotic facility for rapid transient follow-up, which can target most of the sky at
to a depth of
. We have implemented a new software pipeline to receive LIGO/Virgo alerts, schedule observations and examine the incoming real-time data stream for transient candidates. We adopt a real-bogus classifier using ensemble-based machine learning techniques, attaining high completeness (
) and purity (
) over our whole magnitude range. Applying further filtering to remove common image artefacts and known sources of transients, such as asteroids and variable stars, reduces the number of candidates by a factor of more than 10. We demonstrate the system performance with data obtained for GW190425, a binary neutron star merger detected during the LIGO/Virgo O3 observing campaign. In time for the LIGO/Virgo O4 run, we will have deeper reference images allowing transient detection to
A southern population (S) from Xiushui County (29°1′N, 114°4′E) and a northern population (N) from Shenyang city (41°48′N, 123°23′E) of the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi vary greatly in their life-history traits, and may serve as an excellent model with which to study the inheritance of life-history traits. In the present study, we performed intraspecific hybridization using the two populations, comparing the key life-history traits (fecundity, development time, body weight, growth rate, and sexual size dimorphism (SDD)) between the two populations (S♀ × S♂ and N♀ × N♂) and their two hybrid populations (S♀ × N♂ and N♀ × S♂ populations) at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C. Our results showed that there were significant differences in life-history traits between the two parental populations, with the S population having a significantly higher fecundity, shorter larval development time, larger body weight, higher growth rate, and greater weight loss during metamorphosis than the N population at almost all temperatures. However, these life-history traits in the two hybrid populations were intermediate between those of their parents. The life-history traits in the S × N and N × S populations more closely resembled those of the maternal S population and N population, respectively, showing maternal effects. Weight loss for both sexes was highest in the S population, followed by the S × N, N × S, and N populations at all temperatures, suggesting that larger pupae lost more weight during metamorphosis. The changes in SSD with temperature were similar between the S and the S × N populations and between the N and the N × S populations, also suggesting a maternal effect. Overall, our results showed no drastic effect of hybridization on C. bowringi, being neither negative (hybrid inferiority) nor positive (heterosis). Rather, the phenotypes of hybrids were intermediate between the phenotypes of their parents.
Anxiety disorders are widespread across the world. A systematic understanding of the disease burden, temporal trend and risk factors of anxiety disorders provides the essential foundation for targeted public policies on mental health at the national, regional, and global levels.
The estimation of anxiety disorders in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 using systematic review was conducted to describe incidence, prevalence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 204 countries and regions from 1990 to 2019. We calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify the temporal trends in anxiety disorders burden by sex, region and age over the past 30 years and analysed the impact of epidemiological and demographic changes on anxiety disorders.
Globally, 45.82 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 37.14, 55.62] million incident cases of anxiety disorders, 301.39 million (95% UI: 252.63, 356.00) prevalent cases and 28.68 (95% UI: 19.86, 39.32) million DALYs were estimated in 2019. Although the overall age-standardised burden rate of anxiety disorders remained stable over the past three decades, the latest absolute number of anxiety disorders increased by 50% from 1990. We observed huge disparities in both age-standardised burden rate and changing trend of anxiety disorders in sex, country and age. In 2019, 7.07% of the global DALYs due to anxiety disorders were attributable to bullying victimisation, mainly among the population aged 5–39 years, and the proportion increased in almost all countries and territories compared with 1990.
Anxiety disorder is still the most common mental illness in the world and has a striking impact on the global burden of disease. Controlling potential risk factors, such as bullying, establishing effective mental health knowledge dissemination and diversifying intervention strategies adapted to specific characteristics will reduce the burden of anxiety disorders.
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors and psychological stress of health-care workers (HCWs) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a nonfrontline clinical department.
Data of 2 source patients and all HCWs with infection risk were obtained in a department in Wuhan from January to February 2020. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate psychological stress of COVID-19 on HCWs.
The overall infection rate was 4.8% in HCWs. Ten of 25 HCWs who contacted with 2 source patients were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 (8/10) and suspected COVID-19 (2/10). Other 2 HCWs were transmitted by other patients or colleagues. Close care behaviors included physical examination (6/12), life nursing (4/12), ward rounds (4/12), endoscopic examination (2/12). Contacts fluctuated from 1 to 24 times and each contact was short (8.1 min ± 5.6 min). HCWs wore surgical masks (11/12), gloves (7/12), and isolation clothing (3/12) when providing medical care. Most HCWs experienced a mild course with 2 asymptomatic infections, taking 9.8 d and 20.9 d to obtain viral shedding and clinical cure, respectively. Psychological stress included worry (58.3%), anxiety (83.3%), depression (58.3%), and insomnia (58.3%).
Close contact with COVID-19 patients and insufficient protection were key risk factors. Precaution measures and psychological support on COVID-19 is urgently required for HCWs.
The COVID-19 outbreak required the significantly increased working time and intensity for health professionals in China, which may cause stress signs.
From March 2–13 of 2020, 4,618 health professionals in China were included in an anonymous, self-rated online survey regarding their concerns on exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaires consisted of five parts: basic demographic information and epidemiological exposure; occupational and psychological impact; concerns during the episode; coping strategies; and the Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index (HEI).
About 24.2% of respondents experienced high levels of anxiety or/and depressive symptoms since the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who worried about their physical health and those who had COVID-19 infected friends or close relatives were more likely to have high HEI levels, than those without these characteristics. Further, family relationship was found to have an independent protective effect against high HEI levels. Their main concerns were that their families would not be cared for and that they would not be able to work properly. Compared to respondents with clear emotional problems, those with somewhat hidden emotional issues adopted more positive coping measures.
About a quarter of medical staff experienced psychological problems during the pandemic of COVID-19. The psychological impact of stressful events was related to worrying about their physical health, having close COVID-19 infected acquaintances and family relationship issues. Therefore, the psychological supprot for medical staff fighting in the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed.
Bile acids (BA) have emerged as signalling molecules regulating intestinal physiology. The importance of intestinal microbiota in production of secondary BA, for example, lithocholic acid (LCA) which impairs enterocyte proliferation and permeability, triggered us to determine the effects of oral probiotics on intestinal BA metabolism. Piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and allocated into control (CON, n 14) or probiotic (PRO, n 14) group fed 50 mg of Lactobacillus plantarum daily, and gut microbiota and BA profile were determined. To test the potential interaction of LCA with bacteria endotoxins in inducing damage of enterocytes, IPEC-J2 cells were treated with LCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LCA + LPS and expressions of genes related to inflammation, antioxidant capacity and nutrient transport were determined. Compared with the CON group, the PRO group showed lower total LCA level in the ileum and higher relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus in faeces. In contrast, the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcus_1, important bacteria genera in BA biotransformation, were all lower in the PRO than in the CON group. Moreover, PRO piglets had lower postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 level, while higher glucose level than CON piglets. Co-administration of LPS and LCA led to down-regulated expression of glucose and peptide transporter genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Altogether, oral L. plantarum altered BA profile probably by modulating relative abundances of gut microbial genera that play key roles in BA metabolism and might consequently impact glucose homoeostasis. The detrimental effect of LCA on nutrient transport in enterocytes might be aggravated under LPS challenge.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
Increasing evidence supports that 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene(5HTTLPR) might associate to bipolar disorder and affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. But the results are discrepant, furthermore, there are no data from Chinese population.
The present study was designed to investigate association between 5HTTLPR and bipolar disorder and affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in the specific Chinese population and add new evidence to the field.
There hundred and five patients with bipolar disorder and 272 normal controls were included in the present case-control study⌧Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego -autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in Chinese was used to assess affective temperament. Chi-square test, T test, Nonparametric test and ANOVA were employed to explore association between 5HTTLPR polymorphism and bipolar disorder and affective temperament of patients with bipolar disorder.
5-HTTLPR L/S polymorphism was associated with bipolar disorder in female (genotype χ2 = 6.769⌧P = 0.034⌧allele χ2 = 6.028⌧P = 0.014) and the S allele was associated with anxious temperament (t = 8.248⌧P = 0.005) in patients with bipolar disorder. the LA allele of 5-HTTLPR rs25531 A/G polymorphism was associated with hyperthymic temperament in patients with bipolar disorder (Z = −2.205⌧P = 0.027).
5-HTTLPR might have an effect on the prevalence of bipolar disorder in female and regulate affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in some degree in Chinese population.
Bioinformatic investigations indicate that has-mir-206 (microRNA-206, miRNA-206) could regulate BDNF protein synthesis by interfering with BDNF mRNA translation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder (BPD).
This study is to investigate whether miRNA-206 gene variants were associated with BPD susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.
342 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I (BPD-I) or type II (BPD-II) and 386 matched health controls were enrolled into this study. the miRNA-206 gene and +/-500bp were selected for gene sequencing. for the case-control genetic comparisons, differences in the genotype and allele distributions between patients and controls were examined using Pearson's χ2 test.
Gene sequencing showed that there are two polymorphisms rs16882131(C/T) and rs62408583 (A/C) located at the upstream of miRNA-206 gene, which are complete linkage disequilibrium. the association analysis showed that there was no significant difference for genotype frequencies (χ2 = 2.075, df = 2, P = 0.354) or for allele frequencies (χ2 = 0.041, df = 1, P = 0.839) between BPD patients and controls. Similarly, no significant difference was found between BPD-I patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 1.411, df = 2, P = 0.494; allele χ2 = 0.380, df = 1, P = 0.538). However, there was significant difference between BPD-II patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 7.933, df = 2, P = 0.019; allele χ2 = 5.403, df = 1, P = 0.020).
Our findings do not support that BPD susceptibility was associated with miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms in the studied Han Chinese population. the association between miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder type II is needed to be carefully interpreted. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the involvement miRNA-206 in the pathophysiology of BPD.
To explore the difference in the clinical features between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression from the clinical phenomenology.
Two hundred bipolar patients with their current depressive episode and five hundred and sixty three recurrent depression were involved in the study. Clinical features of these two groups were compared and stepwise Logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between clinical features and bipolar disorder.
Clinical features of depressive episode which was different between two groups and were associated with bipolar disorder were as follows: age at onset of bipolar was earlier than that of unipolar depression; Bipolar patients whose age at onset before 25 years were more than unipolar depression; Sexual appetites which was one of atypical depressive symptoms were more common in bipolar depression than in unipolar depression; with psychiatric symptoms, psychomotor retardation, mood instability and duration of every depressive episode < 3 months, were more common in bipolar depression group than in unipolar depression group; Cognitive impairment factor, one of factors of HAMD-17 score, was significantly higher in bipolar depression group than in unipolar depression group. The odd ratio were 1.54, 1.50, 3.25, 1.99, 1.89, 1.48, 1.63, 1.63, and 1.42 separately.
The founding suggested that unipolar depression and bipolar depression might be distinct disorder, and age at onset, age at onset < 25, sexual appetites, psychiatric symptoms, psychomotor retardation, mood instability and duration of every depressive episode < 3 months might be potential to be the predictors of bipolar disorder.
To explore the factors associated with occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder with their first depressive episode.
One hundred and seventy seven bipolar patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. One hundred fifty four patients were included in non-occurrence of suicidal risk group, while twenty three were included in occurrence of suicidal risk group. To compare the demographic and clinic features between these two groups. Stepwise Logistic regression model was used to identify the associated factors. Concordance statistics (i.e. the area under the ROC curve) was used to compute the discrimination of the associated factors, and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was used to measure the goodness-of-fit.
Clinical features associated with occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder were as follows: psychotic symptom and symptom of irritability. The odd ratio was 6.23 and 4.04 separately.
This study demonstrated indicated that psychotic symptom and symptom of irritability were associated with occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder, and it suggested that these two symptoms might be potential to be the predictors of occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder.
The present study compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among patients with SSD, major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls.
Gene expression profiling was conducted in peripheral blood leucocytes from drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD, and matched controls (8 subjects in each group) using global mRNA expression arrays. Support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized for training and testing on candidate signature expression profiles from signature selection step.
We identified SSD and MDD gene signatures from blood-based gene expression profile and build a SSD- MDD disorder model with higher predictive power. Firstly, we identified 63 differentially expressed SSD signatures in contrast to control (P <= 5.0E-4) and 30 differentially expressed MDD signatures in contrast to control, respectively. Then, 123 gene signatures were identified with significantly differential expression level between SSD and MDD. Secondly, in order to conduct priority selection for biomarkers for SSD and MDD together, we selected top gene signatures from each group of pair-wise comparison results, and merged the signatures together to generate better profiles used for clearly classify SSD and MDD sets in the same time. In details, we tried different combination of signatures from the three pair-wise compartmental results and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures with 100% accuracy.
Blood cell-derived RNA may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and identifying disease biomarkers in SSD and MDD. These 48 gene model could classify SSD, MDD, and healthy controls.
To study the relationship between insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)and subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD).
In this case-control study, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) with TaqMan MGB was used to analyzing the differences of IGF1R gene mRNA expression in peripheral leukocytes between subsyndromal symptomatic depression group(n = 47) and healthy controls(n = 52). At the same time Hamilton Depression Rating Scale -17(HAMD17) were assessed.
IGF1R gene mRNA expression was 0.21 ± 0.11 in SSD group, 0.56 ± 0.37 in healthy group, and there was significant difference between both groups on IGF1R expression(z = 39.54, P < 0.001). the expression levels of IGF1R in SSD patients was not correlated with Hamilton score(r = −0.292, p = 0.275).
This study suggested that the decreased expression of IGF1R were related with the pathophysiology of SSD.
Epigenetic changes may play a role in the etiology of psychotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that olig2 is implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD). the aim of this study was to investigate the methylation status of a promoter region of the olig2 gene in BPD and SCZ patients.
Our study included 41 BPD and 45 SCZ (DSM-IV criteria) as well as 53 control subjects. DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes and bisulfited sequence analysis was used to determine the DNA methylation status of a typical CpGs island within the promoter region of olig2.
We found the methylated cytosines occurred mainly in two clusters. Olig2 gene promoter was hyper-methylated(∼30%) in DNA derived from the blood leukocytes in SCZ and BD compared to the controls subjects(P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in frequency of site-specific cytosine methylation modification of Olig2 gene between SCZ patients and BD patients(P = 0.21).
We observed increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of the olig2 gene of SCZ and BPD. This could explain the reported decrease of the gene expression. the current study supports the growing interest of DNA methylation in psychopathology.
Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.
At high redshift, the contribution of strong emission lines to the broadband photometry can cause large uncertainties when estimating galaxy physical properties. To examine this effect, we investigate a sample of 54 LBGs at 3 < zspec < 3.8 with detected [OIII] line emissions. We use CIGALE to fit simultaneously the rest-frame UV-to-NIR SEDs of these galaxies and their emission line data. By comparing the results with and without emission line data, we show that spectroscopic data are necessary to constrain the nebular model. We examine the K-band excess, which is usually used to estimate the emissions of [OIII]+Hβ lines when there is no spectral data, and find that the difference between the estimation and observation can reach up to > 1 dex for some galaxies, showing the importance of obtaining spectroscopic measurements of these lines. We also estimate the equivalent width of the Hβ absorption and find it negligible compared to the Hβ emission.