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The burden of mental disorders is increasing worldwide, thus, affecting society and healthcare systems. This study investigated the independent influences of age, period and cohort on the global prevalence of mental disorders from 1990 to 2019; compared them by sex; and predicted the future burden of mental disorders in the next 25 years.
The age-specific and sex-specific incidence of mental disorders worldwide was analysed according to the general analysis strategy used in the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2019. The incidence and mortality trends of mental disorders from 1990 to 2019 were evaluated through joinpoint regression analysis. The influences of age, period and cohort on the incidence of mental disorders were evaluated with an age–period–cohort model.
From 1990 to 2019, the sex-specific age-standardized incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) rate decreased slightly. Joinpoint regression analysis from 1990 to 2019 indicated four turning points in the male DALY rate and five turning points in the female DALY rate. In analysis of age effects, the relative risk (RR) of incidence and the DALY rate in mental disorders in men and women generally showed an inverted U-shaped pattern with increasing age. In analysis of period effects, the incidence of mental disorders increased gradually over time, and showed a sub-peak in 2004 (RR, 1.006 for males; 95% CI, 1.000–1.012; 1.002 for women, 0.997–1.008). Analysis of cohort effects showed that the incidence and DALY rate decreased in successive birth cohorts. The incidence of mental disorders is expected to decline slightly over the next 25 years, but the number of cases is expected to increase.
Although the age-standardized burden of mental disorders has declined in the past 30 years, the number of new cases and deaths of mental disorders worldwide has increased, and will continue to increase in the near future. Therefore, relevant policies should be used to promote the prevention and management of known risk factors and strengthen the understanding of risk profiles and incidence modes of mental disorders, to help guide future research on control and prevention strategies.
Maternal syphilis not only seriously affects the quality of life of pregnant women themselves but also may cause various adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). This study aimed to analyse the association between the related factors and APOs in maternal syphilis. 7,030 pregnant women infected with syphilis in Henan Province between January 2016 and December 2022 were selected as participants. Information on their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment status, and pregnancy outcomes was collected. Multivariate logistic regression models and chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree models were used to analyse the factors associated with APOs. The multivariate logistic regression results showed that the syphilis infection history (OR = 1.207, 95% CI, 1.035–1.409), the occurrence of abnormality during pregnancy (OR = 5.001, 95% CI, 4.203–5.951), not receiving standard treatment (OR = 1.370, 95% CI, 1.095–1.716), not receiving any treatment (OR = 1.313, 95% CI, 1.105–1.559), and a titre ≥1:8 at diagnosis (OR = 1.350, 95%CI, 1.079–1.690) and before delivery (OR = 1.985, 95%CI, 1.463–2.694) were risk factors. A total of six influencing factors of APOs in syphilis-infected women were screened using the CHAID decision tree model. Integrated prevention measures such as early screening, scientific eugenics assessment, and standard syphilis treatment are of great significance in reducing the incidence of APOs for pregnant women infected with syphilis.
The neuroanatomical alteration in bipolar II depression (BDII-D) and its associations with inflammation, childhood adversity, and psychiatric symptoms are currently unclear. We hypothesize that neuroanatomical deficits will be related to higher inflammation, greater childhood adversity, and worse psychiatric symptoms in BDII-D.
Voxel- and surface-based morphometry was performed using the CAT toolbox in 150 BDII-D patients and 155 healthy controls (HCs). Partial Pearson correlations followed by multiple comparison correction was used to indicate significant relationships between neuroanatomy and inflammation, childhood adversity, and psychiatric symptoms.
Compared with HCs, the BDII-D group demonstrated significantly smaller gray matter volumes (GMVs) in frontostriatal and fronto-cerebellar area, insula, rectus, and temporal gyrus, while significantly thinner cortices were found in frontal and temporal areas. In BDII-D, smaller GMV in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) was correlated with greater sexual abuse (r = −0.348, q < 0.001) while larger GMV in the right orbital MFG was correlated with greater physical neglect (r = 0.254, q = 0.03). Higher WBC count (r = −0.227, q = 0.015) and IL-6 levels (r = −0.266, q = 0.015) was associated with smaller GMVs in fronto-cerebellar area in BDII-D. Greater positive symptoms was correlated with larger GMVs of the left middle temporal pole (r = 0.245, q = 0.03).
Neuroanatomical alterations in frontostriatal and fronto-cerebellar area, insula, rectus, temporal gyrus volumes, and frontal-temporal thickness may reflect a core pathophysiological mechanism of BDII-D, which are related to inflammation, trauma, and psychiatric symptoms in BDII-D.
Previous cross-sectional and case–control studies have proposed that decreased vitamin D levels are positively correlated with the risk of suicidality in adults. However, limited studies have examined the association between vitamin D and suicidality in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D and suicidality risk among early adolescents.
Data were obtained from a Chinese early adolescent cohort. In this cohort, seventh-grade students from a middle school in Anhui Province were invited to voluntarily participate in the baseline assessments and provide peripheral blood samples (in September 2019). The participants were followed up annually (in September 2020 and September 2021). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and vitamin D–related single-nucleotide polymorphisms at baseline were measured in November 2021. Traditional observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D at baseline and the risk of baseline and incident suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation [SI], plans and attempts).
Traditional observational analysis did not reveal a significant linear or non-linear association of serum 25(OH)D concentration with the risks of baseline and 2-year incident suicidality in the total sample (P > .05 for all). Sex-stratified analysis revealed a non-linear association between the 25(OH)D concentration and the risk of baseline SI in women (Poverall = .002; Pnon-linear = .001). Moreover, the risk of baseline SI in the 25(OH) insufficiency group was lower than that in the 25(OH) deficiency group in the total sample (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51–0.92, P = .012). This difference remained significant in women (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40–0.87, P = .008) but not in men (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.53–1.15, P = .205). Additionally, both linear and non-linear MR analyses did not support the causal effect of serum 25(OH)D concentration on the risk of baseline, 1-year and 2-year incident suicidality (P > .05 for all).
This study could not confirm the causal effect of vitamin D on suicidality risk among Chinese early adolescents. Future studies must confirm these findings with a large sample size.
The use of simulation games in education has been rising in recent years. Triage is not only a major content among the EMS (emergency medical services) but also a necessary skill for students to improve their first-aid ability. This study aims to investigate a game for education called MASS (movement, assessment, sort, and sending), which attempts to enhance students’ capability of disaster response.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted among students who took the course: “Understanding Disaster and Surviving Risk” during the term and volunteered to participate in teaching research from different faculties in Sichuan University. Participants were trained by using the simulation game or the online course before class. The simulation game is MASS, which uses virtual reality techniques to create a realistic 3D tanker explosion scene, and the online course is a Massive Open Online Course created by the teaching team. In the class, questionnaires with subjective and objective multiple choices were carried out after a discussion. With SPSS version 27.0, statistical significance among groups was determined by Mann-Whitney U-test for rank variables, Fisher’s exact test for binary variables.
73 students were included in this study, including 45 in the online course group and 28 in the simulation game group. The qualitative experience survey showed the two groups were significantly different in experience of disaster scene challenges, application scenes, and method of triage (P=0.031, 0.007, 0.031, respectively). Students in the simulation game group showed significantly better performance in knowledge acquisition including application scene of triage, key of the expectant’s assessment, and rescue condition for thoracentesis than in the Online game group (P=0.048, 0.020, 0.010, respectively).
Simulation games can improve students’ experience and performance in triage training. Due to the unrepeatability of disaster, the study suggests that games can be used to conduct simulation education for disaster medicine.
The Qieganbulake deposit associated with a mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex in the Kuluketage block is not only the world’s second-largest vermiculite deposit, but also a medium-size carbonatite-related phosphate deposit. Field observations, radiometric dating results and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes reveal that the parental magmas of the carbonatite and mafic–ultramafic rocks are cogenetic and formed synchronously at c. 810 Ma. Geochemical characteristics and Sr–Nd–Hf–S isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70581–0.70710; ϵNd(t) = −0.20 to −11.80; ϵHf(t) = −7.5 to −10.3; δ34S = +0.7 ‰ to +3.0 ‰ (some sulfides with high δ34S values (+3.2 to +6.6) were formed by late hydrothermal sulfur)), in combination with mineral compositions and previous research, strongly indicate that the Qieganbulake mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex formed via extensive crystal fractionation/cumulation and liquid immiscibility of a carbonated tholeiitic magma, possibly derived from partial melting of an enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously modified by slab-released fluids and sediment input in a continental rift setting. The coupled enriched Sr–Nd isotopic signatures, in combination with previous research, suggest that the enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle could have been metasomatized by asthenospheric mantle melts to different degrees. The Qieganbulake carbonatite-related phosphate ores were the products of normal fractional crystallization/cumulation of P–Fe3+ complex enriched carbonatite magma in high oxygen fugacity conditions, which was generated by liquid immiscibility of CO2–Fe–Ti–P-rich residual magma undergoing high differentiation.
Searching for residue in the glaze of porcelain or stoneware is a difficult task because these glazes are high-fired, well vitrified, and nonporous. This paper analyzes the chemical composition of residue observed in glaze cracks of porcelain via SEM-EDS to determine how the crackle effect was produced, in particular, if it was intentionally created during production or the result of post-depositional processes. This study offers insights to a specific type of ancient Chinese porcelain called “Ge-type ware”, which has two different types of cracks, and whose origin has been debated for nearly 60 years because it has never been found at any kiln site. This paper analyzes the chemical composition of the two crack types, first using elemental mapping to ascertain the different mechanisms that produced these two crack types of the Heirloom Ge ware, and second using residue analysis and chemical fingerprinting to determine the provenance of this puzzling type of porcelain. In doing so, this paper demonstrates how the residue in the glaze of porcelain can be observed and analyzed via microchemical approaches and hopes to inspire more research using this technique in future.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory index (DII), inflammation biomarkers and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (±3 years), week of gestation (±1 week) and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a seventy-nine item semiquantitative FFQ. Inflammatory biomarkers were analysed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were −0·65 ± 1·58 for cases and −1·19 ± 1·47 for controls (P value < 0·001). E-DII scores positively correlated with interferon-γ (rs = 0·194, P value = 0·001) and IL-4 (rs = 0·135, P value = 0·021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (Ptrend < 0·001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2·18 times the lowest tertiles (95 % CI = 1·52, 3·13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30 % (95 % CI = 18 %, 43 %, P value < 0·001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1·07, 95 % CI = 1·03, 1·11), IL-4 (OR = 1·26, 95 % CI = 1·03, 1·54) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (OR = 1·17, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
Little is known about the effects of dietary patterns on prevalent pre-eclampsia in Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the odds of pre-eclampsia among Chinese pregnant women. A 1:1 age- and gestational week-matched case–control study was conducted between March 2016 and February 2019. A total of 440 pairs of pre-eclampsia cases and healthy controls were included. Dietary intakes were assessed by a seventy-nine-item FFQ and subsequently grouped into twenty-eight distinct groups. Factor analysis using the principal component method was adopted to derive the dietary patterns. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the associations of dietary patterns with prevalent pre-eclampsia. We identified four distinct dietary patterns: high fruit-vegetable, high protein, high fat-grain and high salt-sugar. We found that high fruit-vegetable dietary pattern (quartile (Q)4 v. Q1, OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·92, Ptrend = 0·013) and high protein dietary pattern (Q4 v. Q1, OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95, Ptrend = 0·011) were associated with a decreased odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women. Whereas high fat-grain dietary pattern showed a U-shaped association with pre-eclampsia, the lowest OR was observed in the third quartile (Q3 v. Q1, OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·98, Ptrend = 0·111). No significant association was observed for high salt-sugar dietary pattern. In conclusion, pregnancy dietary pattern characterised by high fruit-vegetable or high protein was found to be associated with a reduced odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case–control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a seventy-eight-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose–response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the OR of the highest quartile were 0·45 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·71, Ptrend = 0·001) for VD dietary intake and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·11, 0·60, Ptrend = 0·003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
Giardia duodenalis is a common zoonotic intestinal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in humans and animals; however, genotyping information for G. duodenalis in captive animals is still limited. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in captive animals in zoological gardens in Shanghai, China. A total of 678 fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from captive animals including non-human primates (NHPs) (n = 190), herbivores (n = 190), carnivores (n = 151), birds (n = 138) and reptiles (n = 9) in a zoo and were examined for the presence of G. duodenalis using nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR). All G. duodenalis positive samples were assayed with PCR followed by sequencing at β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. In this study, 42 specimens (6.2%) were tested G. duodenalis-positive of the 678 fecal samples examined based on a single locus. A total of 30 (4.4%), 30 (4.4%) and 22 (3.2%) specimens were successfully amplified and sequenced at gdh, tpi and bg loci, respectively. Assemblages A and B were identified with assemblage B dominating in NHPs. Sequence analysis demonstrated that one, two and five new isolates were identified at bg, gdh and tpi loci. DNA sequences and new assemblage-subtypes of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages A and B were identified in the current study. Our data indicate the occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and the potential zoonotic transmission in captive animals in China.
We recently reported Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao in Tang et al., 2019, from the early Cambrian Hetang Formation in South China and interpreted it as a problematic animal fossil, possibly related to either sponges or bivalved arthropods (Tang et al., 2019). Slater and Budd (2019) contested our taxonomic identification and phylogenetic interpretation; instead, they claimed that Cambrowania ovata is a large acritarch referable to morphotaxon Leiosphaeridia Eisenack, 1958, and thus is not an animal. Here we refute their criticisms, clarify the differences between Cambrowania and Leiosphaeridia and other acritarchs, and reiterate why an animal affinity for Cambrowania cannot be ruled out.
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and other mammals, and it causes major public and veterinary health problems worldwide. China is a major pig-raising country, and studies on Giardia in pigs have important public health significance. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Giardia and assess its genetic characterization. A total of 93 samples were collected from two farms in Shanghai. The presence of Giardia was determined using PCR and sequence analysis of glutamate dehydrogenase, beta-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase genes. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 26.88% (25/93) in the pigs, with 28.13% (18/64) in farm 1 vs 24.14% (7/29) in farm 2. All the PCR-positive products were successfully sequenced, and assemblage E was more prevalent. Zoonotic assemblages A and B and canine-specific assemblage C were identified in farm 1, whereas, only assemblage E was detected in farm 2. Interestingly, two pig isolates showed 100% homology with human-derived isolates from Australia and China at the bg and tpi loci respectively. Pigs infected with Giardia infect humans by polluting the environment; whether pigs are a potential environmental source of the human pathogen in China requires more epidemiological data.
The lower-middle Hetang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2–3) deposited in slope-basinal facies in South China is well known for its preservation of the earliest articulated sponge fossils, providing an important taphonomic window into the Cambrian Explosion. However, the Hetang Formation also hosts a number of problematic animal fossils that have not been systematically described. This omission results in an incomplete picture of the Hetang biota and limits its contribution to the understanding of the early evolution of animals. Here we describe a new animal taxon, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, new genus new species, from the middle Hetang Formation in the Lantian area of southern Anhui Province, South China. Specimens are preserved as carbonaceous compressions, although some are secondarily mineralized. A comprehensive analysis using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-CT reveals that the new species is characterized by a spheroidal to fusoidal truss-like structure consisting of rafter-like crossbars, some of which are secondarily baritized and may have been internally hollow. Some specimens have aperture-like structures that are broadly similar to oscula of sponges, whereas others show evidence of a medial split reminiscent of gaping carapaces. While the phylogenetic affinity of Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. remains problematic, we propose that it may represent carapaces of bivalved arthropods or more likely sponges in early life stages. Along with other problematic metazoan fossils such as hyolithids and sphenothallids, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. adds to the diversity of the sponge-dominated Hetang biota in an early Cambrian deepwater slope-basinal environment.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
In the design process, different problem statements result in different problem-solving strategies. A proper problem statement is the key to effective problem-solving. Based on the characteristics of the product design process, we divided design problem statements into open-ended (OE), decision-making (DM), and constrained (CO) statements and attempted to investigate the influences of different problem statements on designers’ cognitive behaviors from three perspectives, namely divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and mental workload. Then we provided quantification description to these influences based on electroencephalography (EEG) technology. We conducted experiments on 19 participants and used the BrainProduct™ actiChamp-32 to record the EEG data. Results are as follows: (1) The higher task-related α power was found in the temporal and occipital regions in the OE task compared with that in the DM and CO tasks. The OE statement also would help designers get novel ideas by strengthening their divergent thinking. (2) In the DM and CO tasks, there was no significant difference in the impact of the brain region on convergent thinking, but activities in the left hemisphere were stronger than that in the right hemisphere. The DM and CO tasks have better performance in convergent thinking than the OE task. (3) In the CO task, the designer's mental workload is the highest and mainly related to the activation of the centroparietal and occipital regions. These findings help designers understand the design problem-solving process from the perspective of cognitive science and monitor their thinking modes in the design process so as to improve their design performance.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is considered as a promising heterogeneous catalyst for photocatalytic H2 evolution from water under visible light illustration, and its photocatalytic performance could be controlled through its texture and optical/electronic properties. Herein, we present a facile one-step heating method for the synthesis of B/P/F doped g-C3N4 photocatalysts (BCN, PCN, and FCN). The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-vis absorption, FTIR, BET, XPS, PL, and photocurrent measurement. The results show that the B/P/F doping increased the interplanar stacking distance of g-C3N4, enlarged the optical absorption range, and improved the photocatalytic activity of H2 evolution. FCN exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity, followed by BCN, and PCN that has the lowest performance. This work studies the doping effects of the nonmetal elements on the photocatalytic activities, the electronic structures as well as the band gaps of g-C3N4, to provide a feasible modification pathway to design and synthesize highly efficient photocatalysts.
System architecture is important for the design of complex mechatronic systems because it acts as an intermediator between conceptual design and detail design. An explicit and exact system modeling language is imperative for successful architecture design. However, some deficiencies remain, such as the lack of geometry elements, hybrid behavior description, and specific association semantics for existing architecture modeling languages. In this study, a Systems Modeling Language extension for mechatronic system architecture modeling called ArchME is proposed. The requirements for the mechatronic System Modeling Language are analyzed, and the metamodels are defined. Then, the modeling elements are determined. Finally, the profiles based on the systems modeling language are defined to support the modeling of function, behavior, structure, and their association. This enables system designers to model the system architecture and facilitates communication between different stakeholders. A case study is provided to demonstrate the modeling capability of ArchME.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using Multiplex 3, a hand-held canopy fluorescence sensor, to determine rice nitrogen (N) status at different growth stages. In 2013, a paddy rice field experiment with five N fertilizer treatments and two varieties was conducted in Northeast China. Field samples and fluorescence data were collected simultaneously at the panicle initiation (PI), stem elongation (SE), and heading (HE) stages. Four N status indicators, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concentration (PNC), plant N uptake (PNU) and N nutrition index (NNI), were determined. The preliminary results indicated that different N application rates significantly affected most of the fluorescence variables, especially the simple fluorescence ratios (SFR_G, SFR_R), flavonoid (FLAV), and N balance indices (NBI_G, NBI_R). These variables were highly correlated with N status indicators. More studies are needed to further evaluate the accuracy of rice N status diagnosis using fluorescence sensing at different growth stages.