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Aorto-right-atrial fistula is an uncommon condition with an unclear pathogenesis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a giant omphalocele repaired days after birth and incidentally discovered with a celiacomesenteric trunk-to-right atrium fistula. Three-dimensional reconstruction CT unveiled its anatomical pattern, and the fistula was successfully closed using a Amplatzer vascular plug II percutaneously.
The linguistic study of Chinese, with its rich morphological, syntactic and prosodic/tonal structures, its complex writing system, and its diverse socio-historical background, is already a long-established and vast research area. With contributions from internationally renowned experts in the field, this Handbook provides a state-of-the-art survey of the central issues in Chinese linguistics. Chapters are divided into four thematic areas: writing systems and the neuro-cognitive processing of Chinese, morpho-lexical structures, phonetic and phonological characteristics, and issues in syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse. By following a context-driven approach, it shows how theoretical issues in Chinese linguistics can be resolved with empirical evidence and argumentation, and provides a range of different perspectives. Its dialectical design sets a state-of-the-art benchmark for research in a wide range of interdisciplinary and cross-lingual studies involving the Chinese language. It is an essential resource for students and researchers wishing to explore the fascinating field of Chinese linguistics.
The concurrent incidence of autoimmune comorbidities in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is known. However, the association between OCD and related autoimmune skin diseases (ASDs) has not been well studied.
This study aimed to investigate the association between OCD and the risk of ASDs.
To assess the risk of developing ASDs, we recruited 44 324 patients with OCD and 177 296 matched controls from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A Cox regression model was used for the analyses.
After adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of ASDs among the patients with OCD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 6.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.43-7.45) was found when compared to the controls. Statistically significant associations were found between OCD and seven individual ASDs, including psoriasis (aHR: 12.52; 95% CI: 8.78-17.85), lichen planus (aHR: 27.22; 95% CI: 13.09-56.60), alopecia areata (aHR: 13.69; 95% CI: 9.38-19.98), autoimmune bullous diseases (aHR: 4.30; 95% CI: 2.03-9.11), hidradenitis suppurativa (aHR: 29.95; 95% CI: 3.35-267.62), vitiligo (aHR: 9.35; 95% CI: 5.35-16.32), and lupus erythematosus (aHR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.52-2.91).
Patients with OCD had an increased risk of developing ASDs compared to matched controls. Further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
Neuroinflammation and brain structural abnormalities are found in bipolar disorder (BD). Elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines have been detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with BD. This study investigated the association between peripheral inflammatory markers and brain subregion volumes in BD patients.
Euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) aged 20–45 years underwent whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (also known as YKL-40), fractalkine (FKN), soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNF-R1), interleukin-1β, and transforming growth factor-β1 were measured on the day of neuroimaging. Clinical data were obtained from medical records and interviewing patients and reliable others.
We recruited 31 patients with a mean age of 29.5 years. In multivariate regression analysis, plasma level YKL-40, a chemokine, was the most common inflammatory marker among these measurements displaying significantly negative association with the volume of various brain subareas across the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Higher YKL-40 and sTNF-R1 levels were both significantly associated with lower volumes of the left anterior cingulum, left frontal lobe, right superior temporal gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus. A greater number of total lifetime mood episodes were also associated with smaller volumes of the right caudate nucleus and bilateral frontal lobes.
The volume of brain regions known to be relevant to BD-I may be diminished in relation to higher plasma level of YKL-40, sTNF-R1, and more lifetime mood episodes. Macrophage and macrophage-like cells may be involved in brain volume reduction among BD-I patients.