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High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a key factor affecting dough-processing quality. 1Sty13 is a novel HMW-GS found in the tetraploid species, Elymus sibiricus L. 1Sty13 has faster electrophoretic mobility than the 1Dy12 subunit on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The gene encoding the 1Sty13 subunit was composed of 1803 nucleotide base pairs with an open reading frame that was 599 amino acids in length. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of 1Sty13 indicated that the N-terminal domain was similar to the y-type subunit, whereas the C-terminal domains were similar to the x-type subunit. Five cysteine residues were found in 1Sty13, which is one less than the published HMW-GS in the St genome. The 1Sty13 protein was purified at a scale sufficient for incorporation into flour for the SDS sedimentation test, which indicated that incorporating 1Sty13 improved dough quality.
The Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene has been identified as a top risk gene for schizophrenia in several large-scale genome-wide association studies. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) of this gene is the most significant expression quantitative trait locus, but its role in brain activity in vivo is still unknown.
We first performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan of 101 healthy subjects during a memory span task, trained all subjects on an adaptive memory span task for 1 month, and finally performed another fMRI scan after the training. After excluding subjects with excessive head movements for one or more scanning sessions, data from 93 subjects were included in the final analyses.
The VNTR was significantly associated with both baseline brain activation and training-induced changes in multiple regions including the prefrontal cortex and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, it was associated with baseline brain activation in the striatum and the parietal cortex. All these results were corrected based on the family-wise error rate method across the whole brain at the peak level.
This study sheds light on the role of AS3MT gene variants in neural plasticity related to memory span training.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case–control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (Pinteraction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (Pinteraction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.
Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.
C50 films, are deposited on Si(111) substrates using neutral cluster beams of fullerenes generated from a crucible with a special nozzle. X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the structural properties of C50 films, which indicate highly textural films as close-packed structure with strong (110) XRD assignment and 400Å for correlation length. Raman spectrum indicates the existence of stable C60 films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements are carried out to analyze the electronic properties of the films. The resistivity to contamination of C50 film deposited here is better than that deposited by MBE. Different kinds of oxygen contamination on the surfaces of C50 films and HDPG are detected by the results of O 1s XPS analyses.
Films (with thicknesses about thousands A) of a new form of carbon allotrope, CIO also known as Fullerenes, are deposited on Si(111) substrates using ionized cluster beam deposition (ICBD) technique at low (65V) accelerating voltage V. X-ray &-20 diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the structural properties of C6Ofi lms, indicating hexagonal close-packed structure with strong (002) XRD assignment together with weak (100), (112) and(004) assignments. Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) are carried out to make detailed studies of the electronic properties of the films and to illustrate differences between CO films and amorphous carbon films which are deposited by ICBD at high accelerating voltage V >400V. Cio soccer-balls are found to be broken into fragments as accelerating field overtakes about 400V, indicated by the results of XPS, Raman spectra, XRD, and UV/visible absorption spectra.
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