To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The formation of turbostratic boron nitride (tBN) phase on the cubic boron nitride (cBN) phase was investigated at specific conditions. The cBN film was deposited on the Si substrate by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. When the bias voltage at the substrate was adjusted to –85 V, the tBN phase nucleated on the cBN phase and grew simultaneously with the cBN phase. This was a critical bias voltage below which only the tBN phase was formed. The surface morphology of this film was typically shown as nodules dispersed on a very flat surface. The formation of nodulelike tBN phases seemed to be caused by a small variation of local stress on the growth surface. Once the nucleation of the nodulelike tBN phase occurred, the growth of tBN phase was accelerated. Transmission electron microscopy result showed evidence of the stress relaxation of the film caused by the formation of tBN phase at the interface of the tBN and cBN phases.
The effect of residual stress on the out-of-plane deflection in a free-standing thick diamond films was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The deflection is believed to be caused by the variation in residual stress with film thickness. Key idea of this study is that the stress variation may be produced by gradually increasing substrate deformation resulting from the layer-by-layer deposition of the film. The layer-by-layer deposition was modeled by using infinitesimal plate-bending theory, considering the two deformation modes of contraction or expansion and bending. To verify the suggested model, several hundred micron thick diamond films were fabricated on Si, Mo and W substrates of varying thicknesses by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. The model's predictions on bowing, based on intrinsic stress value measured by the curvature method, were in good agreement with the experimentally measured curvature of the as-released films. Finally, it is concluded that the bowing of CVD thick films depends on the intrinsic stress variation of the film associated with gradual increase in substrate deformation.
BN films consisting of c-BN and h-BN phases were synthesized using an ion-beam-assisted deposition process. In contrast to conventional observations, the c-BN and h-BN phases did not form separate layers, but were distributed in the form of nano-sized grains throughout the film thickness. No distinctly aligned h-BN layer was observed before the c-BN phase. Such a mixed character of the film was attributed to a localized ion bombardment effect instead of the macro-stress. Possibly because of the presence of scattered h-BN phases, the thin film described here possessed a low hardness of about 20 GPa and a low stress of about 5 GPa, compared with other reported c-BN-containing films.
We investigated the formation of nanowhiskers by means of air plasma dry etching using diamond films of two different kinds: as-grown diamond films and films with molybdenum (Mo) deposits. As for the as-grown diamond films, nanowhiskers were found to form preferentially at grain boundaries of diamond crystals. Auger depth profile analysis of the etched films revealed a progressive enrichment by Mo toward the whisker tip, resulting from accidental sputtering of Mo substrate holder. With dry etching of diamond films with preformed Mo deposits, well-aligned whiskers 100 nm in diameter were found to form uniformly over the entire film surface with a population density of 30/μm2. From these findings, it follows that Mo deposits serve as micromasks for the formation of the nanowhiskers. It was also confirmed that these whiskers showed excellent field-emission behavior.
Due to growth tensile stress, which evolves in diamond films during deposition, thick diamond films are easily cracked. In this study we successfully prevented growth cracks by introducing thermal compressive stress with step-down control of deposition temperatures during growth. Three deposition temperature drops of 10 °C each during deposition enabled us to successfully synthesize crack-free four-inch diamond wafers several hundred micrometers in thickness. This method is very simple and may be applicable to coating of films of various materials different from those of substrates.
The deposition area of diamond film is increased by applying a geometry of multiple cathodes and a single anode in direct current (dc) plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD). Each cathode is made of Ta and connected independently to its own dc power supply. The operating pressure is 1.3 × 104 Pa (100 Torr), and methane-hydrogen mixed gas is used as reaction gas. The voltage and the current applied to each cathode are 650 V and 4 A, respectively. The transition from a diffuse glow to an arc is prevented by maintaining cathode temperatures above 2000 °C, which inhibits carbon deposition on the cathodes. Translucent diamond film of 3 in. diameter, thicker than 200 μm, is grown using seven cathodes with 3% CH4–H2 mixed gas for 110 h. The deposition area can be increased further by increasing the number of cathodes.
Highly oriented diamond films were deposited on a (001) silicon substrate by bias enhanced MPCVD technique. Three-dimensional TEM characterizations were carried out to understand the nucleation and growth mechanism of diamond grains. The surface morphology, defects, and misorientations of diamond films were compared as a function of synthesizing temperatures and thickness of the films. From our experimental results the texture formation mechanism of diamond films is discussed.
Strip-shaped diamond-tip field emitter array was fabricated by using the transfer mold technique. The sharp turn-on characteristic was observed from the current-voltage measurement of the fabricated diamond-tip field emitter array. The turn-on characteristic of the diamond-tip field emitter array was compared with that of a flat diamond film. High emission current density was obtained from the diamond-tip field emitter array. The threshold voltage of the diamond-tip field emitter array was lower than that of a flat diamond film.
Residual compressive stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was measured by beam deflection method. DLC films were deposited on thin Si wafers using r.f. plasma decomposition of methane and benzene. Negative bias voltage of the cathode was varied from -100 to -800 V and deposition pressure from 3 to 100 mTorr. When using benzene as precursor gas, the residual stress monotonically increases as increasing . (Here, Vb is the negative bias voltage of cathode and P the deposition pressure.) In case of using methane, however, the residual stress has a maximum value at between 70 and 100 V/mTorr1/2. Because of the difference in molecular size between benzene and methane, the mean free path of ions in benzene discharge is 5 times shorter than that in methane discharge. The contrasting behavior of residual stress is discussed in terms of the difference in ion energies at the specimen surface due to the difference in mean free path. On the other hand, total hydrogen concentration decreases as increasing in both cases. This result thus shows that the total hydrogen concentration cannot be a key to understand the behavior of residual stress.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.