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The dependence of phosphorus doping on crystal face and C/Si ratio in the epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC using phosphine were investigated. Phosphorus incorporation was highest on off-axis (000-1) and lowest on off-axis (0001). Phosphorus incorporation on (11-20) came between that on off-axis (0001) and (000-1). With increasing C/Si ratio from 0.5 to 2.5, phosphorus incorporation increased on (11-20) and off-axis (000-1). Phosphorus incorporation on off-axis (0001) showed unclear C/Si ratio dependence. On (000-1), the highest phosphorus concentration of 2 × 1018cm-3 was obtained by an increasing PH3 flow rate. The roughness, growth rate, and surface morphology of the high phosphorus doped epilayer were investigated.
In this study, we investigated surface features formed by molten KOH etching of (000-1) substrates and epilayers, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found the surface features formed on (000-1) are protrusions, in contrast to well-known dimples on (0001).
The prospect of lattice structure and ferroelectricity of SnTiO3 have been studied by first-principles calculations within local density approximation. The results showed that the SnTiO3 has the minimum total energy within almost tetragonal perovskite structure of a=b=3.80 Å, c=4.09 Å. The calculated electronic structure of SnTiO3 resembles that of PbTiO3 because the Ti 3d states, Sn 5s and 5p states hybridize with the O 2p orbitals. The moment of spontaneous polarization of SnTiO3 was estimated as 73 μ C/cm2, which is as large as that of PbTiO3.
Impurity effects were investigated in (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) systems in order to suppress leakage currents under relatively low oxygen pressure conditions by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). We tried to dope transition metals, such as Mo, Mn, Cr, W and Fe into the BST target and used the targets to fabricate the films. By measuring electrical properties, we found Fe-doping had a significant effect on suppressing leakage current. Subsequently, we changed the amount of Fe doping from 0.1mol% to 6%. As a result, with post annealing, the sample with Fe:4% showed the lowest leakage current among those analyzed. Even without post annealing, the sample with Fe:6% showed the lowest leakage current. As for the dielectric constants, they decreased as the doping increased. At most, a 30% reduction was observed, compared with non-doped BST. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structures) results indicated that the valency of the Fe ion was 3+ and located at the B-site of BST.
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