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The prospect of lattice structure and ferroelectricity of SnTiO3 have been studied by first-principles calculations within local density approximation. The results showed that the SnTiO3 has the minimum total energy within almost tetragonal perovskite structure of a=b=3.80 Å, c=4.09 Å. The calculated electronic structure of SnTiO3 resembles that of PbTiO3 because the Ti 3d states, Sn 5s and 5p states hybridize with the O 2p orbitals. The moment of spontaneous polarization of SnTiO3 was estimated as 73 μ C/cm2, which is as large as that of PbTiO3.
Impurity effects were investigated in (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) systems in order to suppress leakage currents under relatively low oxygen pressure conditions by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). We tried to dope transition metals, such as Mo, Mn, Cr, W and Fe into the BST target and used the targets to fabricate the films. By measuring electrical properties, we found Fe-doping had a significant effect on suppressing leakage current. Subsequently, we changed the amount of Fe doping from 0.1mol% to 6%. As a result, with post annealing, the sample with Fe:4% showed the lowest leakage current among those analyzed. Even without post annealing, the sample with Fe:6% showed the lowest leakage current. As for the dielectric constants, they decreased as the doping increased. At most, a 30% reduction was observed, compared with non-doped BST. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structures) results indicated that the valency of the Fe ion was 3+ and located at the B-site of BST.
Thin films of La1-xSrxMnO3 (x=0.4) were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. The surface morphology of the films was sensitively affected by oxygen pressure during deposition. At high oxygen pressure (∑150 mTorr), randomly aligned grains were nucleated on the epitaxial film. When the pressure was reduced to 100 mTorr, the epitaxial film had very smooth surface. Under this condition, the thickness dependence of resistivity and magnetization were analyzed. Even 6 nm thick film showed ferromagnetic metallic behavior. The AFM images of ulta thin films deposited on wet-etched SrTiO3 showed atomically flat terraces and 0.4 nm steps. The film growth mode can be tuned to either layer by layer or step flow by the deposition temperature.
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