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Behavioural activation is an efficient treatment for depression and can improve intrinsic motivation. Previous studies have revealed that the frontostriatal circuit is involved in intrinsic motivation; however, there are no data on how behavioural activation affects the frontostriatal circuit.
We aimed to investigate behavioural activation-related changes in the frontostriatal circuit.
Fifty-nine individuals with subthreshold depression were randomly assigned to either the intervention or non-intervention group. The intervention group received five weekly behavioural activation sessions. The participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning on two separate occasions while performing a stopwatch task based on intrinsic motivation. We investigated changes in neural activity and functional connectivity after behavioural activation.
After behavioural activation, the intervention group had increased activation and connectivity in the frontostriatal region compared with the non-intervention group. The increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus was correlated with an improvement of subjective sensitivity to environmental rewards.
Behavioural activation-related changes to the frontostriatal circuit advance our understanding of psychotherapy-induced improvements in the neural basis of intrinsic motivation.
The 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-24) is a short version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which is a self-report inventory for depressogenic schemata.
The object of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAS-24 (DAS-24-J).
Subjects consisted of non-clinical sample 1 (248 university students), non-clinical sample 2 (872 Japanese company employees) and a clinical sample (59 depressed out-patients).
Internal consistency was satisfactory in all three samples, Cronbach’s α coefficient being higher than 0.85. Test–retest reliability was satisfactory in non-clinical sample 1. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 and there was no significant difference in the average score of DAS-24-J between the two points. The DAS-24-J showed satisfactory concurrent validity with the Japanese Irrational Belief Test-20 (r= 0.76); Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire – Revised total (r= 0.46), negative (r= 0.53) and positive (r=−0.41); and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r= 0.44 for non-clinical sample, r= 0.63 for clinical sample). The clinical sample showed a significantly higher DAS-24-J score than non-clinical sample 2. According to a factor analysis combining all three samples, three factors were extracted: factor 1 (11 items) corresponded with ‘achievement’ in the original version, factor 2 (6 items) with ‘self-control’ and factor 3 (5 items) with ‘dependency’.
The DAS-24-J is a reliable and valid instrument to measure depressogenic schemata in Japanese.
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