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Minor and major zygotic genome activation (ZGA) are crucial for preimplantation development. During this process, histone variants and methylation influence chromatin accessibility and consequently regulated the expression of zygotic genes. However, the detailed exchanges of these modifications during ZGA remain to be determined. In the present study, the epigenetic modifications of histone 3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), 27 (H3K27) and 36 (H3K36), as well as four histone variants were determined during minor and major ZGA and in post-ZGA stages of mouse embryos. Firstly, microH2A1, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 were asymmetrically stained in the female pronucleus during minor ZGA but lost staining in major ZGA. Secondly, H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 were strongly stained in the female pronucleus, but weakly stained in the male pronucleus and disappeared after ZGA. Thirdly, H2A.Z and H3.3 were symmetrically stained in male and female pronuclei during minor ZGA. Moreover, H3K27me2 was not statistically changed during mouse early development, while H3K36me2 was only detected in 2- and 4-cell embryos. In conclusion, our data revealed dynamics of histone methylation and variants during mice ZGA and provided details of their exchange in mice embryogenesis. Moreover, we further inferred that macroH2A1, H2A.Z, H3K9me2/3 and H3K27me2/3 may play crucial roles during mouse ZGA.
DNA methylation is an important form of epigenetic regulation in mammalian development. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 1 (MBD1) and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MeCP2) are two members of the MBD subfamily of proteins that bind methylated CpG to maintain the silencing effect of DNA methylation. Given their important roles in linking DNA methylation with gene silencing, this study characterized the coordinated mRNA expression and protein localization of MBD1 and MeCP2 in embryos and placentas and aimed to analysis the effects of MBD1 and MeCP2 on transgenic cloned goats. Our result showed that MBD1 expression of transgenic cloned embryo increased significantly at the 2–4-cell and 8–16-cell stages (P < 0.05), then decreased at the morula and blastocyst stages (P < 0.05); MeCP2 expression in transgenic cloned embryo was significant decreased at the 2–4-cell stage and increased at the 8–16-cell stage (P < 0.05). Placenta morphology analysis showed that the cotyledon number of deceased transgenic cloned group (DTCG) was significantly lower than that the normal goats (NG) and in the live transgenic cloned goats (LTCG) (P < 0.05). MBD1 and MeCP2 were clearly detectable in the placental trophoblastic binucleate cells by immunohistochemical staining. Moreover, MBD1 and MeCP2 expression in DTCG was significant higher than in the NG and the LTCG (P < 0.05). In summary, aberrant expression of methylation CpG binding proteins MBD1 and MeCP2 was detected in embryonic and placental development, which reflected abnormal transcription regulation and DNA methylation involved in MBD1 and MeCP2. These findings have implications in understanding the low efficiency of transgenic cloning.
The overall prognosis of brainstem gliomas is very poor, and the current treatment cannot significantly prolong the overall survival of these patients; therefore, studying the molecular biological mechanisms of the occurrence and development of brainstem gliomas has important significance for their treatment. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is closely associated with the occurrence and development of tumors, but its relationship with brainstem gliomas remains unclear.
This study used Western blot and immunohistochemistry methods to detect the expressions of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-related components such as Wnt-1, Wnt-2, β-catenin and C-myc in six cases of normal brain tissues and 24 cases of brainstem gliomas and analyzed the relationship between their expressions and clinicopathological characteristics.
Wnt-1 had no obvious expression in normal brain tissues and did not show any significant difference between high- and low-grade brainstem gliomas; the expressions of Wnt-2, β-catenin and C-myc in high-grade brainstem gliomas were significantly higher than that in low-grade brainstem gliomas and normal brain tissues and were positively correlated with the expression of Ki-67. Moreover, the expressions of Wnt-2 and C-myc were significantly associated with the prognosis of brainstem glioma patients; additionally, there was a trend toward increased β-catenin expression with shorter survival, but there was no statistical difference.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway might be abnormally activated and plays an important role in the occurrence and development of brainstem gliomas. Wnt-2, β-catenin and C-myc may be potential targets for brainstem glioma treatment.
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