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The disease burden of infectious diarrhea cannot be underestimated. Its seasonal patterns indicate that weather patterns may play an important role and have an important effect on it. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between temperature and infectious diarrhea, and diarrhea-like illness.
Distributed lag non-linear model, which was based on the definition of a cross-basis, was used to examine the effect.
Viral diarrhea usually had high incidence in autumn-winter and spring with a peak at -6°C; Norovirus circulated throughout the year with an insignificant peak at 8°C, while related bacteria usually tested positive in summer and peaked at 22°C. The lag-response curve of the proportion of diarrhea-like cases in outpatient and emergency cases revealed that at -6°C, with the lag days increasing, the proportion increased. Similar phenomena were observed at the beginning of the curves of virus and bacterial positive rate, showing that the risk increased as the lag days increased, peaking on days 16 and 9, respectively. The shape of lag-response curve of norovirus positive rate was different from others, presenting m-type, with 2 peaks on day 3 and day 18.
Weather patterns should be taken into account when developing surveillance programs and formulating relevant public health intervention strategies.
The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD. A total of 370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia and the outcome liver histological severity was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology. Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite non-alcoholic steatohepatitis than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted OR 2·79, 95 % CI 1·31, 5·95, P = 0·008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43·8 v. 17·2 %, P = 0·031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (P value for interaction = 0·006). Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Compared with commercial polyolefin membranes, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane prepared by electrostatic spinning has higher porosity, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability, and lithium-ion conductivity, etc. However, poor mechanical performance has largely limited the application of electrospun PAN separators. In this study, PAN/polyimide (PI) composite membrane is prepared by electrostatic spinning to improve the mechanical and electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis method, and electrochemical methods were used for evaluation of the electrospun composite membrane. The results show that the composite membrane possesses good thermal stability and exhibits better mechanical performance than pristine PAN membrane (increasing by 1.1 times in tension strength). The addition of PI can increase porosity and fluid absorption rate obviously. In addition, the composite membrane has high ionic conductivity (18.77 × 10−4 S/cm), wide electrochemical window (about 4.0 V), and excellent cycling performance. It can retain a discharge specific capacity of 153 mA h/g even after 50 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrospun PAN/PI membrane may be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery separators.
True ileal digestibility (TID) values of amino acid (AA) obtained using growing rats are often used for the characterisation of protein quality in different foods and acquisition of digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in adult humans. Here, we conducted an experiment to determine the TID values of AA obtained from nine cooked cereal grains (brown rice, polished rice, buckwheat, oats, proso millet, foxtail millet, tartary buckwheat, adlay and whole wheat) fed to growing Sprague–Dawley male rats. All rats were fed a standard basal diet for 7 d and then received each diet for 7 d. Ileal contents were collected from the terminal 20 cm of ileum. Among the TID values obtained, whole wheat had the highest values (P<0·05), and polished rice, proso millet and tartary buckwheat had relatively low values. The TID indispensable AA concentrations in whole wheat were greater than those of brown rice or polished rice (P<0·05), and polished rice was the lowest total TID concentrations among the other cereal grains. The DIAAS was 68 for buckwheat, 47 for tartary buckwheat, 43 for oats, 42 for brown rice, 37 for polished rice, 20 for whole wheat, 13 for adlay, 10 for foxtail millet and 7 for proso millet. In this study, the TID values of the nine cooked cereal grains commonly consumed in China were used for the creation of a DIAAS database and thus gained public health outcomes.
The Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri was discovered in 2010 on the western slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Irrawaddy River basin in Myanmar and subsequently in the same river basin in China, in 2011. Based on 2 years of surveying the remote and little disturbed forest of the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve in China, with outline transect sampling and infrared camera monitoring, a breeding group comprising > 70 individuals was found on the eastern slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Salween River Basin. Given the Critically Endangered status of this primate (a total of < 950 individuals are estimated to remain in the wild), efforts to protect the relatively undisturbed habitat of this newly discovered population and to prevent hunting are essential for the long-term survival of this species.
Hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of the Cu–Cr–Zr–Ag alloy were studied by hot compressive tests in the 650–950 °C temperature and 0.001–10 s−1 strain rate ranges using Gleeble-1500D thermomechanical simulator. The activation energy of deformation was determined as Q = 343.23 kJ/mol by the regression analysis. The critical conditions, including the critical strain and stress, for the occurrence of DRX were determined based on the alloy strain hardening rate. The critical strain related to the onset of DRX decreases with temperature. The ratios of the critical to peak stress and critical to peak strain were also identified as 0.91 and 0.49, respectively. The evolution of DRX microstructure strongly depends on the deformation conditions in terms of temperature and strain rate. Dislocation generation and multiplication are the main hot deformation mechanisms for the alloy. The addition of Ag can refine the grain and effectively improve the DRX of the Cu–Cr–Zr alloy. It can also inhibit the growth of the DRX grains at 950 °C deformation temperature, making the microstructure much more stable.
Intergeneric transfer of plasmid vectors pSET152 and pHL212 from donor Escherichia coli ET12567/pUZ8002 and S17-1 to Streptomyces cinnamonensis was demonstrated and optimized. Assisted by this conjugation system, nsdA gene disruption was achieved through PCR-targeted gene replacement. One AprRKanS exconjugant BIB309 was then isolated and confirmed to be the nsdA null mutant. Compared with the starting strain, monensin production by the nsdA− mutant BIB309 increased 270% in vitro.
Co-based brazing alloy CoFeNi(Si, B)CrTi was designed for SiC joining. The periodic banded reaction structure that existed at the interface between SiC and the traditional Ni-based or Co-based braze has been eliminated by the new brazing alloy. The maximum room-temperature four-point bend strength of 161 MPa was achieved for SiC/SiC joint under the optimum brazing condition of brazing filler thickness of 120 μm, brazing temperature of 1150 °C, and brazing time of 10 min. The corresponding reaction layer of the SiC/SiC joint is composed of multilayer silicides and TiC band, and many small TiC particles are scattered throughout the matrix of the central part of the joint. The joints thus exhibit stable high-temperature strength. It is believed that the formation of TiC in the joint contributes not only to the elimination of the periodic banded reaction structure, but also to the high joint strength and the high-temperature stability.
To evaluate the effects of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with HA gene and expressive vector optimization, groups of 3-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a single dose of 100 μg or 10 μg of pCIHA5, pCAGGHA5, pCIoptiHA5 or pCAGGoptiHA5 in 200 μl volume. Another group of chickens was injected with 200 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as controls. Sera were collected every week after vaccination to detect the HI and agar-gel precipitin (AGP) antibodies. Four weeks after the single vaccination, all chickens were challenged with 100LD50 of the highly pathogenic A/Goose/GuangDong/1/96(H5N1) [Gs/GD/1/96(H5N1)]. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swab specimens were collected from all chickens 3, 5 and 7 days after inoculation for titration of virus in eggs. Chickens were observed daily for 2 weeks for signs of disease and death. Results showed that in the groups vaccinated with 100 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were completely protected from virus challenge (no disease signs, no virus shedding and no deaths), while only partial protection occurred in chickens vaccinated with 100 μg pCIoptiHA5 (75%) and pCIHA5 (50%). In groups vaccinated with 10 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were protected from virus challenge (no disease signs and no deaths). In the group vaccinated with 10 μg pCIoptiHA5 the protection ratio was 75%, while chickens vaccinated with 10 μg pCIHA5 all died after challenge. Results indicated that codon usage optimization of the HA gene and β-actin promoter enhanced the protection efficiency of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine and the construction pCAGGoptiHA5 could protect chickens from lethal H5N1 virus challenge even at the low dose of 10 μg, implying the possibility for the commercialization of an avian influenza DNA vaccine in the near future.
The hollow mesoporous spheres (HMS) with cubic pore network have been synthesized via a simple two-step method. Two drugs of different molecules size, Aspirin and Gentamicin, were tested by one simple adsorption process. Up to 336 mg Aspirin molecules can be stored in 1.0 g HMS, while Gentamicin molecules of much larger size are much more difficult to be introduced into the pore channels of HMS. The same results can be obtained by using MCM-48 and MCM-41 as comparative mesoporous carriers. The HMS shows significantly higher storage amount of Aspirin than conventional MCM-48 and MCM-41 due to its hollow core structure. The release process of HMS-Aspirin, MCM-48-Aspirin and MCM-41-Aspirin are found to have a sustained-release property and follow a Fickian diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the HMS is suitable for storage of drug molecules of much smaller size.
A simple and inexpensive method to modify the surface of a Ti3Al-based alloy, liquid-phase siliconizing and aluminizing by an Al-Si alloy, has been proposed. The surface modification at 1013 K for 10 min using Al-10 wt% Si melt resulted in a modified layer with a thickness of about 21 μm, composed of TiAl3 and TiSi2. The coating improved the isothermal oxidation resistance of the Ti3Al-based alloy at 1073 K. A continuous alumina-rich scale was formed at the outermost surface after oxidation. SiO2 was detectable in the oxide scale. The results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray energy dispersive spectrometer analysis showed that during oxidation, some of the TiSi2 in the coating was oxidized to SiO2. In the meantime, the TiSi2 was reduced to a lower silicide, Ti5Si4. The change of the surface microstructure after oxidation and the diffusion reaction between the coating and the Ti3Al substrate were also discussed.
This paper attempts to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CYFRA 21-1 as a serum tumour marker in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
The serum concentration of CYFRA 21-1 was measured utilizing a new electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) in 142 patients with HNSCC before and after treatment, 68 patients with benign tumours of the head and neck, and 50 healthy controls.
Serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 in patients with HNSCC were significantly higher than those of benign tumours and healthy controls (p < 0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of CYFRA 21-1 for HNSCC were 62 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. The positive rates of CYFRA 21-1 increased with progression of HNSCC, serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were related to the tumour stage expressed by primary tumour (T) and nodal status (N) (p < 0.001), but not related to patient age, gender, smoking and drinking habit, or histopathological grade (p > 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CYFRA 21-1 in HNSCC decreased significantly (p < 0.001). Among 38 patients with clinical or radiological evidence of a recurrence during follow-up, 78.9 per cent (30 of 38) showed an increase in CYFRA 21-1.
The analytical ECLIA performance for serum CYFRA 21-1 provides a new means of clinical assessment for HNSCC. The results of ECLIA suggest that the serum marker CYFRA 21-1 is valuable not only for diagnosis but also for close monitoring of patients with HNSCC.
A pair of mutant mice with a first sparse coat appeared spontaneously in the production stock of
BALB/c mice with a normal coat. After being sib-mated, they produced three phenotypes in their
progeny: mice with normal hair, mice with a first sparse coat and then a fuzzy coat, and
uncovered mice. Genetic studies revealed the mutants had inherited an autosomal monogene that
was semi-dominant. By using 11 biochemical loci – Idh, Car2,
Mup1, Pgm1, Hbb, Es1, Es10, Gdc,
Ce2, Mod1 and Es3 – as genetic markers, two-point linkage tests were made. The results showed
the gene was assigned to chromosome 11. The result of a three-point test with Es3 and D11Mit8
(microsatellite DNA) as markers showed that the mutation was linked to Es3 with the
recombination fraction 7·89±2·19%, and linked to D11Mit8 with the recombination fraction
26·30±3·57%. The recombination fraction between Es3 and D11Mit8 was 32·90±3·81%. It is
suggested that the mutation is a new genetic locus that affected the skin and hair structure of the
mouse. The mutation was named uncovered, with the symbol Uncv. Further studies showed the
mutation affected not only the histology of skin and hair but also the growth and reproductive
performance of the mice. The molecular characterization of the Uncv locus needs to be further
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