To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
For a quadratic Markov branching process (QMBP), we show that the decay parameter is equal to the first eigenvalue of a Sturm–Liouville operator associated with the partial differential equation that the generating function of the transition probability satisfies. The proof is based on the spectral properties of the Sturm–Liouville operator. Both the upper and lower bounds of the decay parameter are given explicitly by means of a version of Hardy’s inequality. Two examples are provided to illustrate our results. The important quantity, the Hardy index, which is closely linked to the decay parameter of the QMBP, is deeply investigated and estimated.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
The impact of the dietary potential inflammatory effect on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has not been adequately investigated. The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and DKD in US adults.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2016) were used. DII was calculated from 24-h dietary recall interviews. DKD was defined as diabetes with albuminuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate or both. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were adopted to evaluate the associations.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2016) were used, which can provide the information of participants.
Four thousand two-hundred and sixty-four participants were included in this study. The adjusted OR of DKD was 1·04 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·36) for quartile 2, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·59) for quartile 3 and 1·64 (95 % CI 1·24, 2·17) for quartile 4, respectively, compared with the quartile 1 of DII. A linear dose–response pattern was observed between DII and DKD (Pnonlinearity = 0·73). In the stratified analyses, the OR for quartile 4 of DII were significant among adults with higher educational level (OR 1·83, 95 % CI 1·26, 2·66) and overweight or obese participants (OR 1·67, 95 % CI 1·23, 2·28), but not among the corresponding another subgroup. The interaction effects between DII and stratified factors on DKD were not statistically significant (all P values for interactions were >0·05).
Our findings suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet, shown by a higher DII score, is associated with increased odd of DKD.
NaY zeolite was synthesized from kaolin/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intercalation composites using an in situ crystallization technique. The effects of the intercalation ratios and the amounts of the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite on the synthesis of an NaY zeolite molecular sieve were studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, N2 adsorption–desorption and scanning electron microscopy. In the in situ synthesis system, when the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was added, pure NaY zeolite was formed. By increasing the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity of the samples increased, and after reaching the maximum amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity decreased with further increases of the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added. To higher intercalation ratio, the crystallinity can be greatly improved at the lower addition content. At an intercalation ratio of 84%, the added amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was 2.5% and the crystallinity of the NaY zeolite molecular sieve reached a maximum value of 45%. At intercalation ratios of 55% and 22%, the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added was 15% and the crystallinities of the NaY zeolite molecular sieves were 44% and 47%, respectively. The NaY zeolite has good thermal stability and a particle diameter of ~0.5 μm. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore volume of the sample were 519 m2 g–1 and 0.355 cm3 g–1, respectively.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
Accumulating evidence suggests that altered immunity contributes to the
development of major depressive disorder (MDD).
To examine whether complement factor H (CFH), a regulator of activation
of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade, confers
susceptibility to MDD.
Expression analyses were tested in 53 unmedicated people with MDD and 55
healthy controls. A two-stage genetic association analysis was performed
in 3323 Han Chinese with or without MDD. Potential associations between
CFH single nucleotide polymorphisms and age at MDD
onset were evaluated.
CFH levels were significantly lower in the MDD group at
both protein and mRNA levels (P = 0.009 and
P = 0.014 respectively). A regulatory variant in the
CFH gene, rs1061170, showed statistically significant
genotypic and allelic differences between the MDD and control groups
(genotypic P = 0.0005, allelic P =
0.0001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that age at onset of MDD
was significantly associated with the C allele of
rs1061170 (log rank statistic χ2 = 6.82, P =
0.009). The C-allele carriers had a younger age at onset
of MDD (22.2 years, s.d. = 4.0) than those without the C
allele (23.6 years, s.d. = 4.3).
CFH is likely to play an important role in the
development of MDD. rs1061170 has an important effect on age at onset of
MDD in Han Chinese and may therefore be related to early pathogenesis of
MDD, although further study is needed.
Early identification of patients with bipolar disorder during their first depressive episode is beneficial to the outcome of the disorder and treatment, but traditionally this has been a great challenge to clinicians. Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD), but it is not clear whether BDNF levels can be used to predict bipolar disorder among patients in their first major depressive episode.
To explore whether BDNF levels can differentiate between MDD and bipolar disorder in the first depressive episode.
A total of 203 patients with a first major depressive episode as well as 167 healthy controls were recruited. After 3 years of bi-annual follow-up, 164 patients with a major depressive episode completed the study, and of these, 21 were identified as having bipolar disorder and 143 patients were diagnosed as having MDD. BDNF gene expression and plasma levels at baseline were compared among the bipolar disorder, MDD and healthy control groups. Logistic regression and decision tree methods were applied to determine the best model for predicting bipolar disorder at the first depressive episode.
At baseline, patients in the bipolar disorder and MDD groups showed lower BDNF mRNA levels (P<0.001 and P = 0.02 respectively) and plasma levels (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01 respectively) compared with healthy controls. Similarly, BDNF levels in the bipolar disorder group were lower than those in the MDD group. These results showed that the best model for predicting bipolar disorder during a first depressive episode was a combination of BDNF mRNA levels with plasma BDNF levels (receiver operating characteristics (ROC) = 0.80, logistic regression; ROC = 0.84, decision tree).
Our findings suggest that BDNF levels may serve as a potential differential diagnostic biomarker for bipolar disorder in a patient's first depressive episode.
We report 4-epoch VLBA observations of 3C 66A at 22GHz. The resulting images show a typical core-jet structure. We combine our results with some previous results to investigate the proper motions of the jet components. The kinematics of 3C 66A is quite complicated; mildly superluminal motions as well as apparent inward motions have been detected for some components. The inward motions may imply position change of the observed core.
In exploring an effective and reliable karyotyping method in Brassica crop plants, Brassica oleracea was successfully karyotyped using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). B. oleracea genomic DNA was labelled as probe using DIG-high prime mix kit, with B. rapa genomic DNA acting as blocking agent. Specific fluorescent signals were detected on each pair of homologous chromosomes, and nine pairs of chromosomes of B. oleracea were clearly identified according to the signal characteristics. A practical and accurate method for conducting karyotyping of small chromosomes has been demonstrated.
Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on nanomaterials, especially NEMS resonators made of suspended nanowires, nanotubes or nanosheets have emerged as promising devices for many sensing applications. However, operation of such NEMS resonators in liquids is usually difficult due to strong viscous damping. Here we present our progress in developing NEMS devices based on suspended nanomaterials that can operate in liquids. We present our measurements performed on suspended metallic nanowires driven by AC currents in a magnetic field in liquids.
Effect of lamb age, transport stimulation and repeated hormone superovulation on the number of collected oocytes were determined. Effect of the culture medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the development of embryos produced in vitro from lamb oocytes was also investigated. Results indicated that the mean numbers of collected and available oocytes (oocytes with compacted cumulus cells, evenly granulated ooplasm and morphologically normal) from 6- to 8-week-old lambs were 60.8±13.9 and 58.2±12.3, respectively. These figures were higher than those obtained from 12- to 14-week-old lambs (27.3±5.1 and 26.0±4.9) (P<0.05). Stimulation by transportation didn't decrease the number of collected oocytes from the superovulated lambs (P>0.05). However, the number of collected oocytes in the repeated superovulation group was significantly reduced, compared with the control group (P<0.05). The embryonic culture medium supplemented with 10 μmol/l EDTA highly improved the development capability of the embryos from lamb oocytes (P<0.05). Healthy lambs were born following embryo transfer.
Total body fat mass (TBFM) and total body lean mass (TBLM) are the major components of the human body. Although these highly correlated phenotypic traits are frequently used to characterize obesity, the specific shared genetic factors that influence both traits remain largely unknown. Our study was aimed at identifying common quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to both TBFM and TBLM. We performed a whole genome-linkage scan study in a large sample of 3255 subjects from 420 Caucasian pedigrees. Bivariate linkage analysis was carried out in both the entire sample and gender-specific subsamples. Several potentially important genomic regions that may harbour QTLs important for TBFM and TBLM were identified. For example, 20p12-11 achieved a LOD score of 2·04 in the entire sample and, in the male subsample, two genomic regions, 20p12 (LOD=2·08) and 3p26-25 (LOD=1·92), showed suggestive linkage. In addition, two-point linkage analyses for chromosome X showed suggestive linkages on Xp22 in the entire sample (LOD=2·14) and significant linkage on Xp22 in the female subsample (LOD=3·05). Complete pleiotropy was suggested for 20p12 and 3p26-25 in males. Our results suggest that QTLs on chromosomes 20p12, 3p26-25 and Xp22 may jointly influence TBFM and TBLM. Further fine mapping and gene identification studies for these pleiotropic effects are needed.
To evaluate the effects of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with HA gene and expressive vector optimization, groups of 3-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a single dose of 100 μg or 10 μg of pCIHA5, pCAGGHA5, pCIoptiHA5 or pCAGGoptiHA5 in 200 μl volume. Another group of chickens was injected with 200 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as controls. Sera were collected every week after vaccination to detect the HI and agar-gel precipitin (AGP) antibodies. Four weeks after the single vaccination, all chickens were challenged with 100LD50 of the highly pathogenic A/Goose/GuangDong/1/96(H5N1) [Gs/GD/1/96(H5N1)]. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swab specimens were collected from all chickens 3, 5 and 7 days after inoculation for titration of virus in eggs. Chickens were observed daily for 2 weeks for signs of disease and death. Results showed that in the groups vaccinated with 100 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were completely protected from virus challenge (no disease signs, no virus shedding and no deaths), while only partial protection occurred in chickens vaccinated with 100 μg pCIoptiHA5 (75%) and pCIHA5 (50%). In groups vaccinated with 10 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were protected from virus challenge (no disease signs and no deaths). In the group vaccinated with 10 μg pCIoptiHA5 the protection ratio was 75%, while chickens vaccinated with 10 μg pCIHA5 all died after challenge. Results indicated that codon usage optimization of the HA gene and β-actin promoter enhanced the protection efficiency of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine and the construction pCAGGoptiHA5 could protect chickens from lethal H5N1 virus challenge even at the low dose of 10 μg, implying the possibility for the commercialization of an avian influenza DNA vaccine in the near future.
The effects of Bi substitution for Nd in Ba6−3xNd8+2xTi18O54 (x = 2/3) solid solution upon the microstructures and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The solid solubility limit of Bi in Ba6−3xNd8+2xTi18O54 (x = 2/3) solid solution was about 15 mol%, the same as that for x = 0.5, and densification of the present solid solutions could be performed well at lower temperatures. However, the variation tendency of microwave dielectric properties with composition in the present ceramics quite differed from that for x = 0.5: (1) The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency in the present ceramics showed a continuous variation from positive to negative and did not indicate extreme value at the solid solubility limit. (2) Near-zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency combined with high-ε and high-Qf values could be obtained in the present ceramics, while that for x = 0.5 had a lower limit of +15 ppm/°C. (3) The dielectric constant also showed a continuous increase for the present compositions, while that in x = 0.5 had an extreme at solid solubility limit. Ceramics with composition of Ba6−3x(Nd0.85,Bi0.15)8+2xTi18O54 (x = 2/3) showed excellent dielectric properties of ε = 99.1, Qf = 5290 GHz, and τf = −5.5 ppm/°C.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.