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In this review, we introduce our recent applications of deep learning to solar and space weather data. We have successfully applied novel deep learning methods to the following applications: (1) generation of solar farside/backside magnetograms and global field extrapolation based on them, (2) generation of solar UV/EUV images from other UV/EUV images and magnetograms, (3) denoising solar magnetograms using supervised learning, (4) generation of UV/EUV images and magnetograms from Galileo sunspot drawings, (5) improvement of global IRI TEC maps using IGS TEC ones, (6) one-day forecasting of global TEC maps through image translation, (7) generation of high-resolution magnetograms from Ca II K images, (8) super-resolution of solar magnetograms, (9) flare classification by CNN and visual explanation by attribution methods, and (10) forecasting GOES solar X-ray profiles. We present major results and discuss them. We also present future plans for integrated space weather models based on deep learning.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
We provide the rationale for the wide applicability of the LCT method for inferring the magnetic helicity of an active region, with an illustrative application made to NOAA 10365. We also report that the determined rate of helicity change is not much sensitive to the free parameters of the LCT method. The application of the method to active regions by several investigators has produced results suggesting that the magnetic helicity of a major active region with flux 1022 Mx may be usually of the order of 1043 Mx2 or less, being twisted at most 0.1 turns as a whole.
We fabricated quantum dot arrays using anodic alumina mask. We grew an alumina template on Si wafers by two-step anodization. The porous alumina template thus grown is used as a mask for metal deposition. After thermal evaporation and removal of the mask, we fabricated the quantum dot arrarys on a Si substrate. Using this template-assisted method we obtained a high density array of quantum dots in a large scale. These quantum dots have a narrow size distribution which can be easily controlled by a pore widening of templates from 20 to 60 nm.
The effects of anisotropic dielectric properties of ferroelectric Ba1-xSrxTiO3 (BST) films on the characteristics of phase shifter have been studied in microwave regions at room temperature. Ferroelectric BST films with (001) and (011) orientation were epitaxially grown on (001) and (011) MgO substrates, respectively, by pulsed laser deposition method. The structures of BST films were investigated using x-ray diffraction measurement. The microwave properties of orientation engineered BST films were investigated using coplanar waveguide transmission lines that were fabricated on BST films using a thick metal layer by photolithography and etching process. The measured differential phase shift and insertion loss (S21) for (011) BST films are larger than those for (001) BST films. Dielectric constants of the ferroelectric BST films are calculated from the measured S21 using a modified conformal-mapping model.
The ferroelectric (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) films were prepared on (001) MgO single crystals by pulsed laser deposition. Coplanar waveguide (CPW) type phase shifters controlled by external dc bias field were fabricated on BST films using a 2 μm thick metal layer to reduce metal loss. Microwave properties of the CPW phase shifter were measured using a HP 8510C vector network analyzer from 0.1 – 20 GHz. The fabricated CPW phase shifters (8 mm long) exhibited differential phase angle of 100 ° at 10 GHz with a dc bias field of less than 80 kV/cm between center and ground conductors. Furthermore, a stable differential phase angle (102 ± 3.5 o) was observed from another CPW while changing the power of incident microwave from -10 to +30 dBm. Gap size dependent dielectric constant of the BST film was observed and a simple correction method was suggested in the paper. These results demonstrate the possible application of ferroelectric tunable devices on a high power tunable wireless telecommunication.
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