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The southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) records the assembly process between several micro-continental blocks and the North China Craton (NCC), with the consumption of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO), but whether the S-wards subduction of the PAO beneath the northern NCC was ongoing during Carboniferous–Permian time is still being debated. A key issue to resolve this controversy is whether the Carboniferous magmatism in the northern NCC was continental arc magmatism. The Alxa Block is the western segment of the northern NCC and contiguous to the southeastern CAOB, and their Carboniferous–Permian magmatism could have occurred in similar tectonic settings. In this contribution, new zircon U–Pb ages, elemental geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopic analyses are presented for three early Carboniferous granitic plutons in the southwestern Alxa Block. Two newly identified aluminous A-type granites, an alkali-feldspar granite (331.6 ± 1.6 Ma) and a monzogranite (331.8 ± 1.7 Ma), exhibit juvenile and radiogenic Sr–Nd isotopic features, respectively. Although a granodiorite (326.2 ± 6.6 Ma) is characterized by high Sr/Y ratios (97.4–139.9), which is generally treated as an adikitic feature, this sample has highly radiogenic Sr–Nd isotopes and displays significantly higher K2O/Na2O ratios than typical adakites. These three granites were probably derived from the partial melting of Precambrian continental crustal sources heated by upwelling asthenosphere in lithospheric extensional setting. Regionally, both the Alxa Block and the southeastern CAOB are characterized by the formation of early Carboniferous extension-related magmatic rocks but lack coeval sedimentary deposits, suggesting a uniform lithospheric extensional setting rather than a simple continental arc.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
Findings of epidemiological studies regarding the association between carrot consumption and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. The present study aimed to summarise the current epidemiological evidence concerning carrot intake and lung cancer risk with a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of case–control and prospective cohort studies, and searched PubMed and Embase databases from their inception to April 2018 without restriction by language. We also reviewed reference lists from included articles. Prospective cohort or case–control studies reporting OR or relative risk with the corresponding 95 % CI of the risk lung cancer for the highest compared with the lowest category of carrot intake. A total of eighteen eligible studies (seventeen case–control studies and one prospective cohort study) were included, involving 202 969 individuals and 5517 patients with lung cancer. The pooled OR of eighteen studies for lung cancer was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·74) by comparing the highest category with the lowest category of carrot consumption. Based on subgroup analyses for the types of lung cancer, we pooled that squamous cell carcinoma (OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·19, 1·45), small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·12, 1·59), adenocarcinoma (OR 0·34, 95 % CI 0·15, 0·79), large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·40, 95 % CI 0·10, 1·57), squamous and small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·45, 1·62), adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·20, 95 % CI 0·02, 1·70) and mixed types (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·81). Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the pooled OR. Integrated epidemiological evidence from observational studies supported the hypothesis that carrot consumption may decrease the risk of lung cancer, especially for adenocarcinoma.
As Satellite Clock Bias (SCB) prediction may be affected by various factors such as periodic items, sampling length, and stochastic items, a fusion-based prediction method is proposed by considering characteristics of SCB and fitted residue. On this basis, an instance algorithm is presented by fusing four typical prediction models. First, we use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to pre-process and decompose the SCB series into multiple components with various characteristics. Then, we analyse the fitting performance of each model for different components and prediction length, namely short-, mid- and long-term prediction, and select models with the best performance. Next, we analyse fitted residue of the reconstructed SCB, and select the model with the best fitting results. Finally, we fuse the multiple selected models for SCB prediction. The method is tested using Global Positioning System (GPS) precise clock products provided by the International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS). Experimental results show that, compared with single prediction models and existing combination models, the proposed fusion-based prediction method improves accuracy and stability. In particular, the proposed method is more stable and has better performance for mid- and long-term prediction.
A new integration of the acquisition and tracking modes is proposed for the integration of a Celestial Navigation System (CNS) and a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS). After the integration converges in the acquisition mode, it switches to the tracking mode. In the tracking mode, star pattern recognition is unnecessary and the integration is implemented in a cascaded filter scheme. A pre-filter is designed for each identified star and the output of the pre-filter is fused with the attitude of the SINS in the cascaded navigation filter. Both the pre-filter and the navigation filter are designed in detail. The measurements of the pre-filter are the positions on the image plane of one identified star. Both the starlight direction and its error are estimated in the pre-filter. The estimated starlight directions of all identified stars are the measurements of the navigation filter. The simulation results show that both the reliability and accuracy of the integration are improved and the integration is effective when only one star is identified in a period.
Microstructures of new heat-resistant steel grade T23 welded joint without PWHT and its corresponding mechanical properties including creep were investigated to clarify its premature failure mechanisms in the large water wall panel of the advanced power plant boiler. The results show that the T23 steel GTAW welded joint in a wall thickness of 6.5 mm without PWHT exhibits high tensile strength, good ductility, and sufficient impact toughness, while the hardness of the WM is higher than the maximum permitted value of 350 HV due to the large amount of un-tempered martensite formed during the cooling process of welding. This WM in as-welded condition has higher creep rupture strength but poorer rupture ductility than the tempered BM. Poor rupture ductility taken place in the WM results from inter-granular cracking during creep exposure and is not related to the second hardening because no hardness rise occurs in the fractured WM compared with as-welded condition. The paper does not specifically investigate the effect of service exposure but simulates the failure of WM by a creep test. The main point is that the WM has low creep ductility, especially at a stress concentration.
The accuracy of attitude determination using a star sensor tends to be degraded if the host vehicle's manoeuvring smears the star image. In this paper, a new restoration algorithm with the aid of a Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS) is proposed to reduce the effect of the smeared image. The smeared trace length is estimated with aid of the SINS angular rate. The restoration algorithm based on a Wiener filter is designed after the smeared zone is derived with the aid of the SINS coarse attitude. A tracking method is proposed to reject the stars of low centroid extraction accuracy. Simulations demonstrate that the success rate and the accuracy of attitude determination are improved significantly by the restoration algorithm even under a very fast rotation. The impact of the SINS error on the restoration is evaluated in the simulations.
The role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) in mitosis is well known. However, its role in meiotic division is still poorly documented, especially in the activation of mammalian oocytes. In this study, the role of proteasome in the spontaneous and parthenogenetic activation of rat oocytes was investigated. We found that ALLN, an inhibitor of proteasome, when applied to metaphase II oocytes, inhibited spontaneous activation, blocked extrusion of the second polar body (PB) and caused the withdrawal of the partially extruded second PB. ALLN also inhibited the parthenogenetic activation induced by cycloheximide, but had no effect on the formation of pronuclei in activated eggs. In metaphase and anaphase, ubiquitin and proteasome localized to the meiotic spindle, concentrating on both sides of the oocyte–second PB boundary during PB extrusion. This pattern of cellular distribution suggests that UPP may have a role in regulating nuclear division and cytokinesis. Ubiquitin was seen to form a ring around the pronucleus, whereas proteasome was evenly distributed in the pronuclear region. Taken together, our results indicate that (1) UPP is required for the transitions of oocytes from metaphase II to anaphase II and from anaphase II to the end of meiosis; and (2) the UPP plays a role in cytokinesis of the second meiotic division.
This paper reports on the activation of p90rsk during meiotic maturation and the inactivation of p90rsk after electrical parthenogenetic activation of rat oocytes. In addition, the correlation between p90rsk and MAP kinases after different treatments was studied. We assessed p90rsk activity by examining its electrophoretic mobility shift on SDS-PAGE and evaluated ERK1+2 activity by both mobility shift and a specific antibody against phospho-MAP kinase. The phosphorylation of p90rsk during rat oocyte maturation was a sequential process that may be divided into two stages: the first stage was partial phosphorylation, which was irrelevant with MAP kinases because p90rsk phosphorylation took place prior to activation of MAP kinases. The second stage inferred full activation occurred at the time when MAP kinases began to be activated (3 h after germinal visicle breakdown). Evidence for the involvement of MAP kinases in the p90rsk phosphorylation was further obtained by the following approaches: (1) okadaic acid (OA) accelerated the phosphorylation of both MAP kinases and p90rsk; (2) OA induced phosphorylation of both MAP kinases and p90rsk in the presence of IBMX; (3) when activation of MAP kinases was inhibited by cycloheximide, p90rsk phosphorylation was also abolished; (4) dephosphorylation of p90rsk began to take place at 3 h post-activation, temporally correlated with the completion of MAP kinase inactivation; (5) phosphorylation of both kinases was maintained in oocytes that failed to form pronuclei after stimulation; (6) OA abolished the dephosphorylation of both kinases after parthenogenetic activation. Our data suggest that MAP kinases are not required for early partial activation of p90rsk but are required for full activation of p90rsk during rat oocyte maturation, and that p90rsk dephosphorylation occurs following MAP kinase inactivation after parthenogenetic activation of rat oocytes.
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