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Here, we present an overview of how a tertiary hospital responded to maintain necessary activities and protect patients and staff from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak.
Gil Medical Center, a tertiary hospital in Incheon, has operated a special response team since January 21, 2020. All visitors were assessed for body temperature and respiratory symptoms, and screened for recent overseas travel. Suspected COVID-19 patients were taken to a screening clinic. All febrile patients with or without respiratory symptoms were taken to a respiratory safety clinic. An isolation ward, which consisted of 10 negative-pressure rooms, was used to treat confirmed cases. More than 120 beds were prepared for the outbreak, and patients with pneumonia were preemptively isolated.
By May 5, 480 960 visitors were assessed at the control station, 3350 patients visited the triage center, and 1794 were treated in the respiratory safety clinic. Seventeen confirmed cases were admitted to the negative isolation ward, and 350 patients with pneumonia were preemptively isolated. A total of 2977 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction tests were performed.
While tertiary hospitals play an important role in treating both COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients, hospital staff have to protect themselves from unexpected in-hospital transmission. A multifaceted response must be undertaken to protect tertiary hospitals and their staff during the COVID-19 epidemic.
To compare the characteristics and risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a nationwide survey, using shared case detection and recording systems.
Retrospective cohort study.
Twenty-six hospitals participating in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).
From 2006 to 2009, all patients undergoing THA and TKA in KONIS were enrolled.
SSI occurred in 161 (2.35%) of 6,848 cases (3,422 THAs and 3,426 TKAs). Pooled mean SSI rates were 1.69% and 2.82% for THA and TKA, respectively. Of the cases we examined, 42 (26%) were superficial-incisional SSIs and 119 (74%) were “severe” SSIs; of the latter, 24 (15%) were deep-incisional SSIs and 95 (59%) were organ/space SSIs. In multivariate analysis, a duration of preoperative hospital stay of greater than 3 days was a risk factor for total SSI after both THA and TKA. Diabetes mellitus, revision surgery, prolonged duration of surgery (above the 75th percentile), and the need for surgery due to trauma were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after THA, while male sex and an operating room without artificial ventilation were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after TKA. A large volume of surgeries (more than 10 procedures per month) protected against total and severe SSI, but only in patients who underwent TKA.
Risk factors for SSI after arthroplasty differ according to the site of the arthroplasty. Therefore, clinicians should take into account the site of arthroplasty in the analysis of SSI and the development of strategies for reducing SSI.
To evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after gastric surgery in patients in Korea.
A nationwide prospective multicenter study.
Twenty university-affiliated hospitals in Korea.
The Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS), a Web-based system, was developed. Patients in 20 Korean hospitals from 2007 to 2009 were prospectively monitored for SSI for up to 30 days after gastric surgery. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using multivariate logistic regression models.
Of the 4,238 case patients monitored, 64.9% (2,752) were male, and mean age (±SD) was 58.8 (±12.3) years. The SSI rates were 2.92, 6.45, and 10.87 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. The majority (69.4%) of the SSIs observed were organ or space SSIs. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–2.58]), increased operation time (1.20 [1.07–1.34] per 1-hour increase), reoperation (7.27 [3.68–14.38]), combined multiple procedures (1.79 [1.13–2.83]), prophylactic administration of the first antibiotic dose after skin incision (3.00 [1.09–8.23]), and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP; 2.70 [1.26–5.64]) were independently associated with increased risk of SSI.
Male sex, inappropriate SAP, and operation-related variables are independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
To identify risk factors for the respiratory acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients admitted to a neurosurgical intensive care unit (NSICU) and to modify them without changing general infection control measures.
Nested case-control and intervention study.
A 1,200-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital with a 17-bed NSICU.
Sputa of all patients admitted to the NSICU were cultured weekly during the study. From October 2002 through February 2003, 29 case-patients from whose sputum ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae was isolated were detected and 59 controls-patients were randomly selected among patients without any positive isolate of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. After analyzing the risk factors, we intervened to modify them and compared the acquisition rate of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae before (October 2002 to February 2003) and after (April to August 2003) the intervention.
Multivariate analysis showed that prior exposure to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) (OR, 6.0; CI95, 1.9 to 18.6; P= .002) was an independent risk factor of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae acquisition. The neurosurgical team was notified of the result, and the infectious diseases specialist visited the NSICU three times a week to regulate TGC use during the intervention period. Patients admitted before the intervention were older than patients admitted after. The respiratory acquisition of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae per 1,000 patient-days (13.5 [CI95, 8.9 to 18.1] vs 2.7 [CI95, 0.9 to 4.6]) and the antimicrobial use density of TGCs (38.2 ± 5.0 vs 17.3 ± 2.6; P < .001) decreased significantly after the intervention.
Prior exposure to TGCs was an independent risk factor for the respiratory acquisition of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, and less use of TGCs was associated with a decrease in acquisition.
Retention loss is a significant issue for an application of ferroelectric thin films to high-density non-volatile memory devices. We investigated the polarization retention characteristics of ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films which were fabricated on Pt/IrO2/Ir substrates by different deposition methods. In thermally-accelerated retention failure tests, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films which were prepared by a chmeical solution deposition (CSD) method showed rapid decay of retained polarization charges as the films became thinner down to 1000 Å, while the films which were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) showed relatively large nonvolatile charges at the same thickness. We concluded that in the CSD-grown films, the relatively large interfacial passive layer compared with the MOCVD-grown films had an unfavorable effect on retention behavior. We observed the existence of such interfacial layers by extrapolation of the total capacitance with thickness of the films and the capacitance of this layer was larger in MOCVD-grown films. It means that the possibility of the accumulation of space charges at the interface was reduced, so that less imprint and less retention loss could be observed in the MOCVD-grown films.
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