To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Despite their documented efficacy, substantial proportions of patients discontinue antidepressant medication (ADM) without a doctor's recommendation. The current report integrates data on patient-reported reasons into an investigation of patterns and predictors of ADM discontinuation.
Face-to-face interviews with community samples from 13 countries (n = 30 697) in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys included n = 1890 respondents who used ADMs within the past 12 months.
10.9% of 12-month ADM users reported discontinuation-based on recommendation of the prescriber while 15.7% discontinued in the absence of prescriber recommendation. The main patient-reported reason for discontinuation was feeling better (46.6%), which was reported by a higher proportion of patients who discontinued within the first 2 weeks of treatment than later. Perceived ineffectiveness (18.5%), predisposing factors (e.g. fear of dependence) (20.0%), and enabling factors (e.g. inability to afford treatment cost) (5.0%) were much less commonly reported reasons. Discontinuation in the absence of prescriber recommendation was associated with low country income level, being employed, and having above average personal income. Age, prior history of psychotropic medication use, and being prescribed treatment from a psychiatrist rather than from a general medical practitioner, in comparison, were associated with a lower probability of this type of discontinuation. However, these predictors varied substantially depending on patient-reported reasons for discontinuation.
Dropping out early is not necessarily negative with almost half of individuals noting they felt better. The study underscores the diverse reasons given for dropping out and the need to evaluate how and whether dropping out influences short- or long-term functioning.
Aromatherapy is the field of herbal medicine that uses essential oils distilled from flowers, roots, and herbs and other plant compounds to promote physical and psychological well-being. Essential oils are absorbed into the body in different ways, with the inhaled and topical routes being the most widely used. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate and synthesize the available scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of aromatherapy for the management of any therapeutic indication. This report was requested by the Spanish Ministries of Health and Science and Innovation.
An overview of systematic reviews (SRs) was performed. The MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for literature published from January 2006 to August 2021. SRs reporting the efficacy and safety of aromatherapy were included. We applied no restrictions in terms of administration route or essential oil used. Two reviewers independently performed screening and selection, data extraction, and quality assessment.
We included 74 SRs covering a wide variety of populations and settings. The most reported outcome was anxiety, followed by pain, and the most commonly used essential oil was lavender. Fifteen SRs reported mild adverse events with aromatherapy. Only 11 SRs assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Aromatherapy reduced heart rate and likely reduces anxiety and breathing rate in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Aromatherapy probably also reduces pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Additionally, it may reduce blood pressure, acute pain, subjective stress, and the need for antiemetic drugs after surgical procedures. However, the evidence was very uncertain regarding the effect of essential oils on anxiety, pain, and quality of life in patients with cancer, anxiety and pain after a caesarean section, and dental anxiety.
Aromatherapy may be useful for managing psychological and physical symptoms in different settings. However, the conclusions of this review are not definitive because of the moderate to high risk of bias in many of the primary studies included in the SRs.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic complications associated with pregnancy, affecting both the prognosis of the pregnant woman and the newborn. Pregestational DM type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) and gestational DM (GDM) are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, fetal malformations, macrosomia, preeclampsia, and neonatal hypoglycemia, among others. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using the Dexcom G6 device (Dexcom, Co., USA) to continuously self-monitor blood glucose levels during pregnancy. This report was requested by the Spanish Ministry of Health.
We systematically searched for articles published to July 2021 in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases. We included experimental and observational primary studies addressing the safety, efficacy, and cost effectiveness of the Dexcom G6 device for gestational and pregestational diabetes.
Two non-comparative prospective studies were identified. One study of 25 pregnant women with T1DM, which evaluated glycemic control and complications during pregnancy and postpartum, reported stable hemoglobin A1c levels during gestation in women using the Dexcom G6 device. The percentage of time spent in the therapeutic glucose range (63 to 140 mg/dL) was 59 percent; 38 percent was in the hyperglycemic range and 3 percent was in the hypoglycemic range. Although some patients reported mild erythematous and edematous reactions to the sensor, no moderate or severe reactions or infections occurred at the sensor insertion site. The other study in pregnant women with T1DM (n=20), T2DM (n=3), or GDM (n=9) showed adequate accuracy of the Dexcom G6 device, compared with the reference method, especially when the sensor is placed on the arm.
Randomized controlled trials are required to assess the effectiveness and safety of the Dexcom G6 device in maintaining adequate glucose control during pregnancy in women with DM. Studies are also needed to compare the Dexcom G6 device with conventional capillary blood glucose self-monitoring or other monitoring methods. No cost-effectiveness studies have been conducted for the Dexcom G6 device in this patient population.
Long-term cocaine use is associated with a wide range of cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric pathologies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging therapeutic strategy that stimulates the prefrontal cortex and may improve cognitive inhibitory control and decision-making. This systematic review aimed to evaluate and synthesize evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of cocaine addiction.
A systematic review of the literature was carried out. The following electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published from inception to October 2020: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (nRCTs), case series studies, and full economic evaluations were included.
A total of 12 relevant studies were identified, which included five RCTs, one nRCTs, and six case series studies. None of the studies reported data on cost effectiveness. The results indicated that rTMS reduces cocaine cravings and the number of doses consumed. No serious adverse effects were observed.
The ability to modulate the craving for cocaine in a specific way with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as rTMS, could be a new adjunct to the behavioral treatment of addiction, especially for cocaine use where there is currently no approved pharmacological treatment. Despite the low quality of the included studies, preliminary results indicate that rTMS may reduce cocaine use and cravings. In any case, since this effect is considered moderate, future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are required.
Autogenic training consists of reaching a state of deep relaxation through mental representations of physical sensations in different parts of the body. It is a promising technique for improving the psychological well-being of people with chronic diseases, but there are no clinical practice guidelines recommending the use of autogenic training in this population. The aim of this work was to identify, critically evaluate, and synthesize the available evidence on the safety and effectiveness of autogenic training in the prevention and treatment of medical conditions.
We conducted a systematic search for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The selection and assessment of risk of bias of the included studies was carried out independently by two reviewers.
A total of 2,420 references were identified after eliminating duplicates. Of these, 141 were selected for reading the full text, and 13 systematic reviews and 18 RCTs were included. Compared with no intervention or delayed treatment, autogenic training significantly reduced levels of anxiety and depression as well as some physical symptoms (e.g., headaches and atopic dermatitis).
Autogenic training could be useful for improving the psychological well-being and physical symptoms of patients with chronic health conditions and as an additional element in multicomponent intervention programs. However, these conclusions are not definitive due to the low number of studies available for each health condition and their high or unclear risk of bias.
This study aimed to assess the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13) on the molecular epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children from Andalusia. A population-based prospective surveillance study was conducted on IPD in children aged <14 years from Andalusia (2018–2020). Pneumococcal invasive isolates collected between 2006 and 2009 in the two largest tertiary hospitals in Andalusia were used as pre-PCV13 controls for comparison of serotype/genotype distribution. Overall IPD incidence rate was 3.55 cases per 100 000 in 2018; increased non-significantly to 4.20 cases per 100 000 in 2019 and declined in 2020 to 1.69 cases per 100 000 (incidence rate ratio 2020 vs. 2019: 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20–0.89, P = 0.01). Proportion of IPD cases due to PCV13 serotypes in 2018–2020 was 28% (P = 0.0001 for comparison with 2006–2009). Serotypes 24F (15%) and 11A (8.3%) were the most frequently identified non-PCV13 serotypes (NVT) in 2018–2020. Penicillin- and/or ampicillin-resistant clones mostly belonged to clonal complex 156 (serotype 14-ST156 and ST2944 and serotype 11A-ST6521). The proportion of IPD cases caused by PCV13 serotypes declined significantly after the initiation of the PCV13 vaccination programme in 2016. Certain NVT, such as serotypes 24F and 11A, warrant future monitoring in IPD owing to invasive potential and/or antibiotic resistance rates.
The PapSEEK test is an emerging minimally invasive technique in which samples are collected from the endocervical or intrauterine cavity with the Papanicolaou (Pap) brush or the Tao brush to detect somatic mutations or aneuploidies indicating the presence of endometrial or ovarian cancer.
We systematically searched for articles published up to October 2020 in the following electronic databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. We included experimental studies, observational primary studies, and cost-effectiveness studies evaluating the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of the PapSEEK test for the early detection of ovarian or endometrial cancer. Relevant outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, the coefficient of variation, re-test rates, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, the incremental cost-utility ratio, and the cost of each alternative.
A single relevant retrospective study was identified. In this study, samples from women with endometrial cancer (n = 656) and ovarian cancer (n = 254) were collected with the Pap brush and Tao brush and compared with samples from healthy women (n = 1,002). The diagnostic validity for somatic mutation or aneuploidies obtained with a Pap brush had a sensitivity of 81% for endometrial cancer and 33% for ovarian cancer, and a specificity of 99% for both conditions. When samples were collected from the intrauterine cavity with a Tao brush, the sensitivity increased to 93% for endometrial cancer and to 45% for ovarian cancer. The sensitivity of the PapSEEK test increased only for ovarian cancer when plasma samples to detect circulating tumor DNA were collected in addition to Pap smear samples. This strategy provided a diagnostic validity of 43%, which was higher in late-stage ovarian cancer (56% versus 35%), and a specificity of 100%.
Prospectively designed studies are required to assess the safety and effectiveness of the PapSEEK test in screening settings, as well as studies comparing the technology with conventional screening methods. No cost-effectiveness studies have been conducted for the PapSEEK test.
About 70 percent of metastatic breast, lung, and prostate cancers affect the bones. When this phase of the disease affects the spine, the mobility and quality of life of patients are severely impaired. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become a feasible option in the palliative treatment of vertebral metastases due to its minimal invasiveness and short procedure time. This health technology assessment report aimed to identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of RFA for vertebral metastases.
A systematic search was conducted to identify literature published from December 2016 to July 2019 in the following databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Systematic reviews, randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, and case series studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of RFA in patients with vertebral metastases were included.
Sixteen studies were included: two systematic reviews, 13 case series studies, and one comparative study. None of the systematic reviews identified any randomized controlled trials. Of the 14 included primary studies, 10 evaluated RFA in combination with vertebroplasty, three evaluated RFA in combination with kyphoplasty, and one study evaluated a combination of RFA and radiation therapy. In all cases, the evaluated patients had different types of cancer (e.g., breast, lung, or liver). The follow-up periods varied between the studies from one day to 12 months. The most commonly used RFA devices were the STAR™ Tumour Ablation System (Merit Medical Systems) and the OsteoCool™ Radiofrequency Ablation System (Medtronic).
RFA reduces pain, improves functional capacity, and provides greater local control of disease, potentially giving patients a higher quality of life, even in the context of metastatic disease. Although there is evidence on the safety and efficacy of this technology for the palliative treatment of vertebral metastases, more studies with higher methodological quality are needed. There were no studies available on the cost effectiveness of RFA for this indication.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterised by a recurrent course and high comorbidity rates. A lifespan perspective may therefore provide important information regarding health outcomes. The aim of the present study is to examine mental disorders that preceded 12-month MDD diagnosis and the impact of these disorders on depression outcomes.
Data came from 29 cross-sectional community epidemiological surveys of adults in 27 countries (n = 80 190). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess 12-month MDD and lifetime DSM-IV disorders with onset prior to the respondent's age at interview. Disorders were grouped into depressive distress disorders, non-depressive
distress disorders, fear disorders and externalising disorders. Depression outcomes included 12-month suicidality, days out of role and impairment in role functioning.
Among respondents with 12-month MDD, 94.9% (s.e. = 0.4) had at least one prior disorder (including previous MDD), and 64.6% (s.e. = 0.9) had at least one prior, non-MDD disorder. Previous non-depressive distress, fear and externalising disorders, but not depressive distress disorders, predicted higher impairment (OR = 1.4–1.6) and suicidality (OR = 1.5–2.5), after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Further adjustment for MDD characteristics weakened, but did not eliminate, these associations. Associations were largely driven by current comorbidities, but both remitted and current externalising disorders predicted suicidality among respondents with 12-month MDD.
These results illustrate the importance of careful psychiatric history taking regarding current anxiety disorders and lifetime externalising disorders in individuals with MDD.
Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, which has been theorized to be due to an underlying internalizing vulnerability. We aimed to identify groups of participants with differing vulnerabilities by examining the course of internalizing psychopathology up to age 45.
We used data from 24158 participants (aged 45+) in 23 population-based cross-sectional World Mental Health Surveys. Internalizing disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We applied latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and investigated the characteristics of identified classes using logistic or linear regression.
The best-fitting LCGA solution identified eight classes: a healthy class (81.9%), three childhood-onset classes with mild (3.7%), moderate (2.0%), or severe (1.1%) internalizing comorbidity, two puberty-onset classes with mild (4.0%) or moderate (1.4%) comorbidity, and two adult-onset classes with mild comorbidity (2.7% and 3.2%). The childhood-onset severe class had particularly unfavorable sociodemographic outcomes compared to the healthy class, with increased risks of being never or previously married (OR = 2.2 and 2.0, p < 0.001), not being employed (OR = 3.5, p < 0.001), and having a low/low-average income (OR = 2.2, p < 0.001). Moderate or severe (v. mild) comorbidity was associated with 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 1.9 and 4.8, p < 0.001), disability (B = 1.1–2.3, p < 0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR = 4.2, p < 0.001 for severe comorbidity only). Adult (v. childhood) onset was associated with lower rates of 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 0.2, p < 0.001).
We identified eight transdiagnostic trajectories of internalizing psychopathology. Unfavorable outcomes were concentrated in the 1% of participants with childhood onset and severe comorbidity. Early identification of this group may offer opportunities for preventive interventions.
The predominantly carbonate nature of the mountains near the coast of Málaga and Marbella (Costa del Sol, southern Spain) and the presence of springs have favored the formation of travertine buildups during the Quaternary. The geomorphic characteristics of the slopes and the location of the springs have determined the development of three types of travertine growths: (1) spring travertines, located preferentially on the south mountainside, where the slope is steepest; (2) pool-dam-cascade travertines, which form along the north and east edges, far from the carbonate relief and with a gentler slope; and (3) river-valley travertines, formed in the courses of the springs of any sector. Field observations combined with new amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of Helicidae gastropods show that most of the travertine formations are polyphasic and that their development was interrupted by stages of erosion and incision. Five stages of travertine development are evident, most of which are related to warm, moist episodes corresponding to marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 7, 5, 3, and 1, although local travertine growth also occurred during MIS 6 and during the transition from MIS 3 to 2.
The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure.
We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478–15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA).
A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor.
These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide.
To examine the: (a) 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV MDD; (b) proportion aware that they have a problem needing treatment and who want care; (c) proportion of the latter receiving treatment; and (d) proportion of such treatment meeting minimal standards.
Representative community household surveys from 21 countries as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.
Of 51 547 respondents, 4.6% met 12-month criteria for DSM-IV MDD and of these 56.7% reported needing treatment. Among those who recognised their need for treatment, most (71.1%) made at least one visit to a service provider. Among those who received treatment, only 41.0% received treatment that met minimal standards. This resulted in only 16.5% of all individuals with 12-month MDD receiving minimally adequate treatment.
Only a minority of participants with MDD received minimally adequate treatment: 1 in 5 people in high-income and 1 in 27 in low-/lower-middle-income countries. Scaling up care for MDD requires fundamental transformations in community education and outreach, supply of treatment and quality of services.
Spatial distribution and species diversity of Cephalopoda caught in ARSA bottom trawl
surveys were studied out during two different seasons (autumn and spring) in the Gulf of
Cadiz (Spain) from 2000 to 2007. Species composition of cephalopod assemblages was
analysed, using both clustering analyses and non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis
(nMDS). Spatial distribution of the assemblages identified and abundance of the main
species were mapped with Surfer 8.0 software, using kriging as the geostatistical gridding
method. A total of 35 cephalopod species belonging to 6 families were found at depths
between 20 and 700 m. In each season, Sepiolidae was the most abundant family in terms of
number of species, followed by Octopodidae. The species richness increased up to 100–120 m
depth, where it reached the maximum value. From 120 m, the species richness decreased
progressively with depth. In spring, the species with the highest occurrence was
Eledone moschata (34%) and in autumn it was Alloteuthis media
(70%). In both seasons, the most abundant species in terms of weight was
Octopus vulgaris, while Alloteuthis media showed the
highest yields in terms of numbers. Most species showed wide bathymetric ranges,
especially in autumn. Three different assemblages were found in both seasons during the
time period analysed (although 2003 and 2006 were not included in the cluster analysis):
shelf assemblage (20–160 m), deep shelf/upper slope assemblage (100–350 m) and middle
slope assemblage (320–700 m). The specific composition of these three assemblages was
similar between spring and autumn and an overlap could be observed between them, mainly in
the two continental shelf groups: shelf and deep shelf/upper slope assemblages.
Alloteuthis media and Alloteuthis subulata were the
most abundant species in the shelf assemblage as well as in the deep shelf/upper slope
assemblage. In the middle slope assemblage, Illex coindetii was the most
abundant species. The assemblages and their spatial distributions could be largely related
to a combination of physical and biological factors and their interactions.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.