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Recent studies have detected similarities between autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated structural abnormalities associated with autistic-like traits in patients with schizophrenia by voxel-based morphometry.
Patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects were evaluated by the adult version of the social responsiveness scale (SRS-A), which is sensitive to autistic traits and symptoms even under subthreshold conditions, and magnetic resonance imaging.
There were significant decreases in the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral hippocampi, cerebellums, and right insula of patients with schizophrenia, compared with healthy subjects. We found significant negative correlations of the social communication and interaction (SCI) score, a subscale of SRS-A, with grey matter volume in the left posterior superior temporal region of schizophrenia patients. When subscales of SCI were examined separately in schizophrenic patients, negative correlations were observed between the social cognition score and the volumes of the left posterior superior temporal region, and between social motivation and the posterior cingulate cortex.
We found significant negative correlation between the SCI score and the grey matter volume in the left posterior superior temporal region of schizophrenia patients. This area was the region affected in previous studies of autistic spectrum disorders. Further, this area was associated with the theory of mind. Schizophrenia patients not necessarily show the impairment of SCI, nor this correlated region was not always the point with schizophrenia-specific change. However, we reveal the relationship between the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and the severity of the SCI in schizophrenia by using with SRS-A.
Background: Thirty-three Japanese children and adolescents diagnosed with an anxiety disorder participated in individual or group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) that was modelled after evidence-based intervention programs developed in Western countries. Method: The treatment consisted of: (a) building rapport and education; (b) identifying emotions and recognizing cognitive self-talk; (c) challenging anxious self-talk; (d) developing an anxiety hierarchy and in vivo exposures; and (e) planning for future challenges. Results: Three months following treatment, 20 of the 33 children and adolescents (60.91%) no longer met criteria for their principal anxiety disorders and 16 (48.48%) were free from all anxiety disorders. Self-reported anxiety, depression, and cognitive errors also decreased significantly from pre- to post-treatment and these gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. For the most part, similar outcomes were found in both the group and individual formats of CBT. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary support for the transportability of CBT in both an individual and group format to Japan.
Radiocarbon ages of Choukai Jindai cedar tree rings growing in the excess era of 14C concentrations during 2757–2437 cal BP were measured using 2 types of 14C measurement methods, i.e. liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The difference between the 2 methods is 3.7 ± 5.2 14C yr on average for 61 single-year tree rings, indicating good agreement between the methods. The Choukai data sets show a small sharp bump with an average 14C age of 2497.1 ± 3.0 14C yr BP during 2650–2600 cal BP. Although the profile of the Choukai LSC data set compares well with that of IntCal04, having a 14C age difference of 4.6 ± 5.3 14C yr on average, the Choukai LSC 14C ages indicate variability against the smoothed profile of IntCal04.
We measured the radiocarbon ages of 165 single-year tree rings from a Japanese Choukai Jindai cedar using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). By wiggle-matching the Choukai_AMS data set to the IntCal04 calibration data using OxCal v 3.10 and using the variation of the correlation coefficients between the Choukai_AMS and IntCal04 data sets, we precisely re-estimated that the 321 Choukai Jindai cedar tree rings range from 780 to 460 cal BC with an accuracy of 8 yr. The Choukai_AMS data set is older than the 3 raw data sets of European tree rings that comprise IntCal04. The Belfast and Seattle data sets are younger by −21.3 ± 5.5 and −22.7 ± 5.6 14C yr, respectively. The Choukai Jindai cedar is ∼22 14C yr older than the European tree rings, which is equivalent to an offset of −2.8‰ in 14C. In addition, the Choukai_AMS data set correlates well with the Belfast and Seattle data sets, with correlation coefficients of 0.89 and 0.68, respectively, between the temporal profiles. Hence, the temporal profile of the Choukai 14C ages shows a global variation.
The sperm glycine receptor/Cl- channel (GlyR) is important to the initiation of the mammalian sperm acrosome reaction by the egg zona pellucida, but its presence in spermatogenic cells has not been demonstrated. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies confirmed that GlyR beta subunit transcripts similar to those of the neuronal GlyR beta subunit are present in the testis of Swiss Webster mice. In situ hybridisation analysis demonstrated that GlyR beta subunit mRNAs were expressed within the germ cells of seminiferous tubules in those mice.
The difference between vitamin K metabolism in the liver and that in the bone of vitamin K-deficient rats was examined. After 17 d administration of vitamin K-deficient food, vitamin K in the liver was almost depleted, and prothrombin time (PT) was prolonged. Serum total osteocalcin level was slightly decreased by vitamin K deficiency, whereas serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin level did not change. The level of menaquinone (MK)-4 as well as that of phylloquinone was decreased, but approximately 40 % of the initial level still existed in the femur after the 17 d period. A single-dose administration of vitamin K (250 nmol/kg body weight) markedly increased vitamin K level in the liver but not in the femur. These results suggest that the turnover of vitamin K in the bone is slower than that in the liver, and bone metabolism may be little affected by the short period of intake of vitamin K-deficient food. However, intake of a larger amount of vitamin K is required for its accumulation in the bone than in the liver. Furthermore, the counteracting effect of MK-7 on prolonged PT in vitamin K-deficient rats was found to be higher than phylloquinone or MK-4.
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