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We evaluated the impact of carbapenem shortage on antimicrobial practice and patient outcome at a tertiary care center. During the shortage, hospital antimicrobial practice could be safely managed through additional antimicrobial stewardship measures including treatment guidance and mandatory preauthorization. Antimicrobial shortage may present a unique opportunity for promoting antimicrobial stewardship.
The incidence of seasonal infections due to respiratory viruses other than severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has declined due to heightened public infection prevention measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe an outbreak of human coronavirus OC43 infection that occurred at a long-term care facility and whose clinical features were indistinguishable from COVID-19.
We evaluated the impact of discontinuing universal preadmission screening for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the occurrence of nosocomial clusters of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the SARS-CoV-2 o (omicron) variant period. No increasing trend in nosocomial clusters was observed during community-based surges before and after discontinuation. This finding supports the safety of the practice change.
Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) can provide prompt, accurate identification of infectious organisms and be a key component of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs. However, their use is less widespread in Asia Pacific than western countries. Cost can be prohibitive, particularly in less resource-replete settings. A selective approach is required, possibly focusing on the initiation of antimicrobials, for differentiating bacterial versus viral infections and identifying locally relevant tropical diseases. Across Asia Pacific, more data are needed on RDT use within AMS, focusing on the impact on antimicrobial usage, patient morbidity and mortality, and cost effectiveness. Moreover, in the absence of formal guidelines, regional consensus statements to guide clinical practice are warranted. These will provide a regionally relevant definition for RDT; greater consensus on its role in managing infections; advice on implementation and overcoming barriers; and guidance on optimizing human resource capacity. By addressing these issues, the outcomes of AMS programs should improve.
Not all patients who acquire carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) develop infections by these organisms; many remain only colonized. Of 54 CPE-colonized patients, 16 (30%) developed CPE infections. We identified indwelling urinary catheter exposure, exposure to intravenous colistin, and overseas transfer as variables associated with CPE infection development among colonized patients.
Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
To describe the investigation and control of a rare cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing Citrobacter freundii in a hospital in southern Florida.
An epidemiologic investigation, review of infection prevention procedures, and molecular studies including whole genome sequencing were conducted.
An outbreak of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase–3-producing C. freundii was identified at a tertiary hospital in Florida in 2014. Of the 6 cases identified, 3 occurred in the same intensive care unit and were caused by the same clone. For 2 of the 3 remaining cases, the isolates had low carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations and were unrelated by whole genome sequencing. As a response to the outbreak, supplementary environmental cleaning was implemented, including closure and terminal cleaning of the unit where the 3 cases clustered, in addition to the infection control bundle already in place at the time. No further cases were identified after these additional interventions.
Although C. freundii is not a species that commonly demonstrates carbapenem resistance, our findings suggest that carbapenemase-producing C. freundii may be underdetected even when active surveillance is in place and has a potential to cause hospital outbreak.
Endoscope-associated infections are reported despite following proper reprocessing methods. Microbiological testing can confirm the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. Multiple controversies related to the method and interpretation of microbiological testing cultures have arisen that make their routine performance a complex target.
We conducted a pilot study using disposable bronchoscopes (DBs) to simulate different reprocessing times and soaking times and to compare high-level disinfection versus ethylene oxide sterilization. We also reviewed the time to reprocessing and duration of the procedures.
Bronchoscopes were chosen because an alternative disposable scope is commercially available and because bronchoscopes are more prone to delays in processing. Disposable bronchoscopes were contaminated using a liquid bacterial suspension and were then incubated for 1–4 hours. Standard processing and high-level disinfection were performed on 36 endoscopes. Ethylene oxide sterilization was performed on 21 endoscopes. Endoscope cultures were performed using the standard “brush, flush, brush” technique.
After brushing was performed, a final water-flush culture procedure was the most effective method of detecting bacterial persistence on the disposable scopes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most commonly recovered organism after reprocessing. Ethylene oxide sterilization did not result in total elimination of viable bacteria.
Routine endoscopy cultures may be required to assess the adequacy of endoscopic processing.
To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout).
Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms.
A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida.
Consecutive A. baumannii–colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014.
Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii–colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates.
A total of 25 A. baumannii–colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09).
Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination.
Various transmission routes contribute to spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in hospitalized patients. Patients with readmissions during which CRKP is again isolated (“CRKP readmission”) potentially contribute to transmission of CRKP.
To evaluate CRKP readmissions in the Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in K. pneumoniae (CRaCKLe).
Cohort study from December 24, 2011, through July 1, 2013.
Multicenter consortium of acute care hospitals in the Great Lakes region.
All patients who were discharged alive during the study period were included. Each patient was included only once at the time of the first CRKP-positive culture.
All readmissions within 90 days of discharge from the index hospitalization during which CRKP was again found were analyzed. Risk factors for CRKP readmission were evaluated in multivariable models.
Fifty-six (20%) of 287 patients who were discharged alive had a CRKP readmission. History of malignancy was associated with CRKP readmission (adjusted odds ratio [adjusted OR], 3.00 [95% CI, 1.32–6.65], P<.01). During the index hospitalization, 160 patients (56%) received antibiotic treatment against CRKP; the choice of regimen was associated with CRKP readmission (P=.02). Receipt of tigecycline-based therapy (adjusted OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.72–17.44], using aminoglycoside-based therapy as a reference in those treated with anti-CRKP antibiotics) was associated with CRKP readmission.
Hospitalized patients with CRKP—specifically those with a history of malignancy—are at high risk of readmission with recurrent CRKP infection or colonization. Treatment during the index hospitalization with a tigecycline-based regimen increases this risk.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):281–288
Nasal swab culture is the standard method for identifying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers. However, this method is known to miss a substantial portion of those carrying MRSA elsewhere. We hypothesized that the additional use of a sponge to collect skin culture samples would significantly improve the sensitivity of MRSA detection.
Hospitalized patients with recent MRSA infection were enrolled and underwent MRSA screening of the forehead, nostrils, pharynx, axilla, and groin with separate swabs and the forehead, axilla, and groin with separate sponges. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
A total of 105 MRSA patients were included in the study.
At least 1 specimen from 56.2% of the patients grew MRSA. Among patients with at least 1 positive specimen, the detection sensitivities were 79.7% for the swabs and 64.4% for the sponges. Notably, 86.4% were detected by a combination of sponges and nasal swab, and 72.9% were detected by a combination of pharyngeal and nasal swabs, whereas only 50.9% were detected by nasal swab alone (P<0.0001 and P=0.0003, respectively). Most isolates had SCCmec type II (59.9%) and IV (35.7%). No correlation was observed between the SCCmec types and collection sites.
Screening using a sponge significantly improves MRSA detection when used in addition to screening with the standard nasal swab.
We aimed to determine the association between the presence of Acinetobacter baumannii in patient rooms and the carrier status of the occupants. Fifty-six (39%) of 143 rooms with A. baumannii– positive patients had results positive for A. baumannii. Only 49 (10%) of 485 rooms with A. baumannii-negative patients were positive (odds ratio, 5.72 [95% confidence interval, 3.66–8.96]; P < .0001). Clinical and environmental isolates shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.