To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
It is well known that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays pivotal roles in various mitotic events, but its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that no specific JNK2 signal was detected in germinal vesicle stage. JNK2 was associated with the spindles especially the spindle poles and cytoplasmic microtubule organizing centers at prometaphase I, metaphase I, and metaphase II stages. JNK2 became diffusely distributed and associated with the midbody at telophase I stage. Injection of myc-tagged JNK2α1 mRNA into oocytes also revealed its localization on spindle poles. The association of JNK2 with spindle poles was further confirmed by colocalization with the centrosomal proteins, γ-tubulin and Plk1. Nocodazole treatment showed that JNK2 may interact with Plk1 to regulate the spindle assembly. Then we investigated the possible function of JNK2 by JNK2 antibody microinjection and JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 treatment. These two manipulations caused abnormal spindle formation and decreased the rate of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. In addition, inhibition of JNK2 resulted in impaired localization of Plk1. Taken together, our results suggest that JNK2 plays an important role in spindle assembly and PB1 extrusion during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
Spindle movement, including spindle migration during first meiosis and spindle rotation during second meiosis, is essential for asymmetric divisions in mouse oocytes. Previous studies by others and us have shown that microfilaments are required for both spindle migration and rotation. In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the mechanism controlling spindle movement during mouse oocyte meiosis. By employing drug treatment and immunofluorescence microscopy, we showed that dynamic microtubule assembly was involved in both spindle migration and rotation. Furthermore, we found that the calcium/CaM/CaMKII pathway was important for regulating spindle rotation.
Early studies have shown that some mouse cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) stored at room temperature for 24 h still retained full developmental potential. In this study, we stored denuded mouse oocytes (DOs) at room temperature (25 °C) for 24 h and activated these oocytes with 10 mM SrCl2 or fertilized the oocytes by IVF. We found that nearly half of the DOs stored at room temperature for 1 day can be fertilized normally by IVF and that two foster mothers gave birth to seven pups. Embryos from stored oocytes were cultured in CZB medium with or without 1 μg/ml 17β-estradiol (E2). The numbers of embryo that developed to morula/blastocyst stage after parthenogenetic activation and IVF were significantly increased when E2 was added to the culture (p < 0.05). These results suggest that E2 might improve mouse embryo development in vitro. The birth of seven agouti pups and their healthy growth indicated that the storage of DOs at room temperature for 1 day may be a practical procedure for mammalian reproduction.
The injection of spermatozoa into mouse, human and rabbit oocytes at specific times and positions can result in different rates of viable embryo development. However, it is not clear how the timing and position of round spermatid injection (ROSI) affect pronucleus (PN) formation and blastocyst development of mice. First, we determined the changes in relative position of the first polar body and the spindle, carried out ROSI from 11.5 to 13 h post-hCG administration, then activated by Sr2+, and finally compared the development of ROSI zygotes, including the formation of pronuclei and development of blastocyst. Between 11.5 and 13 h post-hCG administration, the rate of 2PN formation by ROSI at 3 o'clock was the highest among all treated oocytes. Moreover, the blastocyst rate of zygotes with two pronuclei (2PN) was up to 27.41%. These results suggest that the time and position of ROSI can significantly influence the formation of 2PN, that the rates of 2PN formation are closely correlated with blastocyst formation and that the formation of 2PN is necessary for later embryo development.
Rabbit oocyte can be used as the recipient in interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). This work was undertaken in order to study the developmental competence of Capra ibex somatic cells reprogrammed by rabbit oocytes and the fate of mitochondria in iSCNT embryos. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes from superovulated rabbit were used as nuclear recipients. The nuclear donors were Capra ibex somatic cells with different proliferative status: population doubling time (PDL)=15±2 (group 1), 35±2 (group 2), 55±2 (group 3) and 70±2 (group 4). Oocytes reconstructed with electrical pulses (2.1 kV/cm, 10 μs, 2 times) were activated (1.4 kV, 20 μs, 2 times) and then cultured in Medium199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5 °C, 5% CO2 in air. In groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, the fusion rates were 35.83%, 66.03%, 65.40% and 35.35%, respectively. Similar cleavage rates were observed among the four groups. However, the developmental potential to morula/blastocyst from early nuclear donor embryos (16.42%/10.45%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in terminal donor embryos (9.52%/3.81%). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA cytb gene demonstrated that mtDNAs from ibex and rabbit could be detected at various developmental stages before implantation. In conclusion, our results provide some original information about rescuing Capra ibex using the iSCNT technique. These results indicate that: (1) enucleated rabbit oocytes make Capra ibex fibroblast nuclei reprogramme; (2) the proliferative status of donor cells affects the efficiency of iSCNT; and (3) rabbit ooplasm rescues the donor-derived mtDNAs, resulting in mtDNA heteroplasmy before implantation.
The developmental ability of reconstructed blastocysts from C57BL/6 strain mouse inner cell masses (ICMs) and Kunming strain mouse trophoblasts was assessed. The procedure of ICM replacement was as follows: C57BL/6 ICMs were separated from the blastocysts using immunosurgery. A slit was made in the zona pellucida of a Kunming blastocyst to allow its ICM to extrude. The C57BL/6 ICM was injected into the Kunming blastocoele, and the extruded Kunming ICM was cut off. The reconstructed blastocysts were able to re-expand (77%) and hatch (27.3%) in vitro. A total of 64 reconstructed blastocysts and 124 Kunming blastocysts were co-transferred into the uteri of 11 pseudopregnant Kunming mice, and an ICM replacement offspring was born. The results indicate that reconstructed embryos obtained by inter-strain ICM replacement have the ability to develop to term. This technique may provide a method to solve the pregnancy failure in interspecific cloning.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.