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Objectives: Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Previous studies have shown that a care bundle is effective in reducing CLABSI rates; however, the data on long-term sustainability and cost savings of bundled care are limited. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2020, a prospective surveillance was performed to monitor CLABSI at a university hospital in northern Taiwan. To reduce the CLABSI rate, a hospital-wide bundled care program for CLABSI prevention was implemented in 2013. We evaluated the long-term effect of the care bundle on CLABSI incidence and length of stay in the ICU. Results: During the study period, the overall CLABSI incidence decreased from 8.22 per 1,000 catheter days before the care bundle was implemented to 6.33 per 1,000 catheter days in 2020 (P for trend <.01). The most common pathogens causing CLABSI were gut organisms (1,420 of 2,363, 60.1%), followed by environmental organisms (734 of 2,363, 31.1%) and skin organisms (177 of 2,363, 7.5%). The decreasing trend was statistically significant in the incidence of CLABSI caused by skin organisms (P for trend < .01), but not in the incidence of CLABSI caused by environmental organisms (P for trend = .86) or gut organisms (P for trend = .06). In the multivariable analysis, implementation of this care bundle was independently associated with a decrease in the CLABSI rate (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.88). Compared with patients without CLABSI, patients with CLABSI had a longer average ICU length of stay (27 vs 17 days). Conclusions: A sustainable reduction in the incidence of CLABSI caused by common commensals could be achieved through a cost-saving bundled care program.
The goal of the work reported in this paper is to use automated, combinatorial synthesis to generate alternative solutions to be used as stimuli by designers for ideation. FuncSION, a computational synthesis tool that can automatically synthesize solution concepts for mechanical devices by combining building blocks from a library, is used for this purpose. The objectives of FuncSION are to help generate a variety of functional requirements for a given problem and a variety of concepts to fulfill these functions. A distinctive feature of FuncSION is its focus on automated generation of spatial configurations, an aspect rarely addressed by other computational synthesis programs. This paper provides an overview of FuncSION in terms of representation of design problems, representation of building blocks, and rules with which building blocks are combined to generate concepts at three levels of abstraction: topological, spatial, and physical. The paper then provides a detailed account of evaluating FuncSION for its effectiveness in providing stimuli for enhanced ideation.
Hsu W-Y, Chiu N-Y, Liu J-T, Wang C-H, Chang T-G, Liao Y-C, Kuo P-I. Sleep quality in heroin addicts under methadone maintenance treatment.
Background: Sleep disturbance is a common phenomenon among opiate addicts. The side effects of opiate addiction or opiate withdrawal might result in sleep disturbance. However, their problems might be related to sedative medication abuse, alcohol abuse or heroin relapse. Sleep is an important issue in this population.
Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in heroin addicts receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and analyse the correlation between related factors, such as age at opiate exposure, opiate exposure duration, duration in MMT, methadone current dosage, methadone attendance rate and the severity of sleep disorders.
Method: We enrolled 121 heroin addicts who were receiving MMT. We collected data on the duration of insomnia, hypnotic history, Visual Analogue Scale-10 of sleep quality, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), methadone dosage, methadone history and opiate history.
Results: The mean of the PSQI was 9.1 ± 5.4, and 70.2% of patients had PSQI scores >5, indicating they were poor sleepers. We also found the PSQI scores were correlated significantly with the methadone dosage.
Conclusions: The sleep disturbance prevalence rate of opiate addicts under MMT was high in Taiwan, as shown in the previous studies, and the severity of sleep disturbance has been underestimated.
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