To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.
The purpose of the current study was to develop a validated FFQ to evaluate the intake of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) in child and adolescent Asian populations.
Intensive and overall market research was performed to create the applicable NNS-FFQ with thirteen food categories and 305 items. Six intense sweeteners, including acesulfame potassium, aspartame, sucralose, glycyrrhizin, steviol glycosides and sorbitol, were investigated. The validity and reproducibility of the NNS-FFQ were evaluated. The validity was further assessed by examining the consistency of reported NNS intake compared with urinary biomarkers using Cohen’s κ analysis.
This work was considered to be relevant in Asian societies.
One hundred and two children and adolescents recruited from several clinics were invited to participate in the current study.
High content validity indices and high content validity ratio levels were revealed for each sweetener and food category. Reproducibility among subjects was satisfactory. Significant moderate correlations between estimated steviol glycoside/sucralose consumption and sensitive urinary biomarker levels were demonstrated (κ values were 0·59 and 0·45 for steviol glycosides and sucralose, respectively), indicating that the NNS-FFQ can be used to assess an individual’s NNS intake. The dietary intense sweetener consumption pattern evaluated in this measurement was similar to those observed in other Asian countries but differed from those observed in Western populations with respect to types and amounts of NNS.
This validated NNS-FFQ can be an applicable and useful tool to evaluate NNS intake in future epidemiological and clinical studies.
Judging an act’s causal efficacy plays a crucial role in causal decision theory. A recent development appeals to the causal modeling framework with an emphasis on the analysis of intervention based on the causal Bayes net for clarifying what causally depends on our acts. However, few writers have focused on exploring the usefulness of extending structural causal models to decision problems that are not ideal for intervention analysis. The thesis concludes that structural models provide a more general framework for rational decision makers.
Ebselen is a well-known synthetic compound mimicking glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which catalyses some vital reactions that protect against oxidative damage. Based on a large number of in vivo and in vitro studies, various mechanisms have been proposed to explain its actions on multiple targets. It targets thiol-related compounds, including cysteine, glutathione, and thiol proteins (e.g., thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase). Owing to this, ebselen is a unique multifunctional agent with important effects on inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, cell differentiation, immune regulation and neurodegenerative disease, with anti-microbial, detoxifying and anti-tumour activity. This review summarises the current understanding of the multiple biological processes and molecules targeted by ebselen, and its pharmacological applications.
Accurate assessments of potassium intake in children are important for the early prevention of CVD. Currently, there is no simple approach for accurate estimation of potassium intake in children. We aim to evaluate the accuracy of 24-h urinary potassium excretion (24UKV) estimation in children using three common equations: the Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas, in a hospital-based setting. A total of 151 participants aged 5–18 years were initially enrolled, and spot urine samples were collected in the whole 24-h duration to measure the concentrations of potassium and creatinine. We calculated the mean difference, absolute and relative difference and misclassification rate between measured 24UKV and the predicted ones using Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas in 129 participants. The mean measured 24UKV was 1193·3 mg/d in our study. Mean differences between estimated and measured 24UKV were 1215·6, −14·9 and 230·3 mg/d by the Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas, respectively. All estimated 24UKV were significantly different from the measured values in all the time point (all P < 0·05), except for the predicted values from Tanaka formula using morning, afternoon and evening spot urine. The proportions with relative differences over 40 % were 87·2%, 32·5% and 47·3 % for Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas, respectively. Misclassification rates were 91·5 % for Kawasaki, 44·4 % for Tanaka and 58·9 % for Mage formula at the individual level. Our findings showed that misclassification could occur on the individual level when using Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas to estimate 24UKV from spot urine in the child population.
Parasitoid wasps are key agents for controlling insect pests in integrated pest management programs. Although many studies have revealed that the behavior of parasitic wasps can be influenced by insecticides, the strategies of patch time allocation and oviposition have received less attention. In the present study, we forced the endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis to phoxim exposure at the LC30 and tested the foraging behavior within patches with different densities of the host, the larvae of the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura. The results showed that phoxim treatment can significantly increase the patch-leaving tendency of female wasps, while host density had no impact. The number of oviposition and the number of previous patch visits also significantly influenced the patch time allocation decisions. The occurrence of oviposition behavior was negatively affected by phoxim exposure; however, progeny production was similar among patches with different host densities. Phoxim exposure shaped the offspring fitness correlates, including longer durations from cocoon to adult wasps, smaller body size, and shorter longevity. The findings of the present study highlight the sublethal effects that reduce the patch residence time and the fitness of parasitoid offspring, suggesting that the application of phoxim in association with M. pulchricornis should be carefully schemed in agroecosystems.
Self-efficacy is a pivotal factor in the etiology and prognosis of major depression. However, longitudinal studies on the relationship between self-efficacy and major depressive disorder (MDD) are scarce. The objectives were to investigate: (1) the associations between self-efficacy and the 1-year and 2-year risks of first onset of MDD and (2) the associations between self-efficacy and the 1-year and 2-year risks of the persistence/recurrence of MDD, in a sample of first-year university students.
We followed 8079 first-year university students for 2 years from April 2018 to October 2020. MDD was ascertained by the Chinese version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-3.0) based on self-report. Self-efficacy was measured by the 10-item General Self-efficacy (GSE) scale. Random effect logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the associations.
Among participants without a lifetime MDD, the data showed that participants with high baseline GSE scores were associated with a higher risk of first onset of MDD over 2 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.08]. Among those with a lifetime MDD, participants with high baseline GSE scores were less likely to have had a MDD over 2 years (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.99) compared to others.
A high level of GSE may be protective of the risk of persistent or recurrent MDD. More longitudinal studies in university students are needed to further investigate the impact of GSE on the first onset of MDD.
We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin’s effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.
To understand the characteristics and influencing factors related to cluster infections in Jiangsu Province, China, we investigated case reports to explore transmission dynamics and influencing factors of scales of cluster infection. The effectiveness of interventions was assessed by changes in the time-dependent reproductive number (Rt). From 25th January to 29th February, Jiangsu Province reported a total of 134 clusters involving 617 cases. Household clusters accounted for 79.85% of the total. The time interval from onset to report of index cases was 8 days, which was longer than that of secondary cases (4 days) (χ2 = 22.763, P < 0.001) and had a relationship with the number of secondary cases (the correlation coefficient (r) = 0.193, P = 0.040). The average interval from onset to report was different between family cluster cases (4 days) and community cluster cases (7 days) (χ2 = 28.072, P < 0.001). The average time interval from onset to isolation of patients with secondary infection (5 days) was longer than that of patients without secondary infection (3 days) (F = 9.761, P = 0.002). Asymptomatic patients and non-familial clusters had impacts on the size of the clusters. The average reduction in the Rt value in family clusters (26.00%, 0.26 ± 0.22) was lower than that in other clusters (37.00%, 0.37 ± 0.26) (F = 4.400, P = 0.039). Early detection of asymptomatic patients and early reports of non-family clusters can effectively weaken cluster infections.
In Chapter 3, we reviewed studies that investigated how individuals’ personality development is influenced by a wide range of external factors. These longitudinal studies primarily focused on personality change as a relatively passive process that requires a substantial length of time for such effects to occur. However, is there a possibility for personality change to be more actively facilitated within a shorter period, such as through purposefully designed interventions? While this idea may sound bold and potentially controversial from the personality psychology perspective (Mroczek, 2014), clinical psychology had long been operating under the assumption that personality, such as traits associated with depression and anxiety, can be changed through different intervention strategies (see Chapman et al, 2014, for a brief review).
The idea that personality change can be undertaken in a more active way is also in line with the agency perspective. It is not hard to understand that, as human beings, we are not merely ‘pawns’ of the environment and the demands life places upon us; instead, we can be active agents in initiating and driving our own personality change (McAdams & Olson, 2010; Denissen et al, 2013; Scarr & McCartney, 1983). An example of this can be seen in the vast amount of self-help books and training programmes available on the market, which have been suggested to be a $10 billion industry in the US alone (LaRosa, 2018). Indeed, self-pursued personality change is not only possible but desirable for many people who are motivated to improve themselves and willingly invest time, money and energy in doing so.
In this chapter, we will focus on how personality can be changed in a more active and intentional way, by discussing individuals’ agency in this volitional change process and by understanding how interventions can be designed to facilitate such a change. The emerging nature of this area means that existing research specifically on interventions that change personality in work and vocational settings is very sparse. Therefore, we will draw evidence from the broader personality psychology literature, with the aim of providing insights for academics and practitioners working on personality change in the work and professional context.
We have discussed in detail the interactive relationship between work and personality change, and articulated how personality change can occur both as a result of multilevel influences from global, national and organisational contexts, and as a result of one's deliberate and intentional efforts, with and without external intervening forces. By this time, we have established that personality change does occur at work, through both passive and active influences, and that such change can have important implications in our work and lives in general.
In this final chapter, we will move beyond the review of existing evidence and point out the implications of personality change studies for future research and practice. First, we will draw on existing evidence to identify unresolved debates and understudied areas in personality change research, and provide suggestions for future research. We will also comment on methodological issues in studying personality change, providing a brief overview of the existing and future approaches for continuing research in this area. We will then address the practical implications for society, organisations and for employees themselves. By doing so, we hope to shed light on how organisations, leaders and individuals can take on board the dynamic perspective toward personality to adapt their thinking and practices within and beyond organisations.
Implications for future research: conceptual advancement
In this section, we summarise and discuss what we know and what we should further explore to understand work and personality development. We firstly address issues relating to the scope of personality traits and the scope of work experiences, and then indicate other topics for exploration.
The scope of personality traits
The majority of research efforts so far have focused on the Big Five traits. The advantage of such a dedicated focus is that it helps us to integrate research evidence under a consistently applied framework and thus provides a common language for communicating about the phenomenon of personality change. However, moving beyond this focus can present unique opportunities for expanding our knowledge on important, specific personality factors that are subject to change.
Personality is conventionally regarded as a set of stable and enduring individual characteristics that reliably differentiate individuals from one another. For instance, William James (1890, p 126) said that ‘in most of us, by the age of thirty, the character has set like plaster, and will never soften again’. McCrae & Costa (2003, p 3) defined traits as ‘the basic dispositions that … endure through adulthood’ based on evidence they collected over the years on the longitudinal stability of personality traits. Support for personality stability also comes from genetic studies, providing evidence that the heritability of Big Five traits is in the range of 0.50 ± 0.10 (see Bouchard & Loehlin, 2001, for a review). Theoretically, the stability of personality helps us better understand individuals’ attitudes and behaviours at work (see Tasselli et al, 2018, for a review) as we can use personality traits as predictors for a wide range of work outcomes. Practically, the prevalent use of personality testing in personnel selection is being operated under the premise that personality traits are highly stable, and thus that by understanding who our job candidates are we can generate a reasonably reliable prediction as to their behaviour and performance at work once they are employed in the job.
However, is personality truly as stable and fixed as many of us have always believed? Research in personality psychology over recent decades has started to challenge this assumption, and different evidence has emerged that shows an alternative possibility: that personality may be more malleable than we thought. In this chapter, we provide a review of theoretical perspectives on personality change and development. In the following sections, we first discuss changeability of personality and then review key theoretical perspectives from personality psychology literature to discuss why and how personality change occurs throughout our lifespan.
Shifting the paradigm: the changeable nature of personality
If we revisit earlier conceptualisations of personality, we can see that it was never ruled out that traits can be changed. Gordon Allport, the founding father of personality trait research, suggested that people change in response to their social environment: ‘The ever-changing nature of traits and their close dependence on the fluid conditions of the environment forbid a conception that is over-rigid or over-simple’ (Allport, 1937, p 312).
As individuals we all have unique characteristics that make us different from one another, and personality forms one of these important characteristics. Because of our personality differences, we tend to have different ways of thinking, feeling, behaving and relating to others and approaching the world. More importantly, personality has important implications in our lives – it impacts our social and interpersonal relationships, academic and work performance, mental health and well-being and even our physical health and longevity.
However, this is not to say that we should adopt a deterministic perspective about personality or a pessimistic belief that our lives will turn out in certain ways because of how our personality is engineered. As we will describe later, despite having relative stability, personality is not fixed, and instead can be changed by a vast range of life events and experiences. The authors’ particular interest rests on how such change occurs in the work and vocational domain – a domain that is of critical importance to us due to the substantial amount of time we spend in this domain during our lives. By drawing on a wealth of the latest research evidence in personality psychology and organisational psychology, we intend to present how and why such change can happen and what we can do to facilitate this change in a positive and meaningful way.
This first chapter is a foundational chapter in which we provide a brief review of how personality is conceptualised, as well as how personality has been studied (and the results of those studies applied) in the work context. This chapter is intentionally kept very brief so that we can quickly move onto the change perspective of personality in the remaining chapters.
What is personality?
Personality as a concept has attracted broad interest for thousands of years. As early as the fourth century BC, Greek physicians proposed four temperamental types that differentiate individuals from one another – the sanguine, choleric, melancholic and phlegmatic – primarily based on individuals’ bodily fluids (i.e. ‘humours’). Since the development of psychology as a scientific discipline, personality has taken a central position in the discipline for the purpose of understanding individual differences, with numerous perspectives and discussions undertaken throughout the 20th century.