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Sites dated to the early late Pleistocene are still limited in North China, which has hindered the detailed analysis of the development of Paleolithic industries in the late Pleistocene in this area. The Youfangbei (YFB) site is a newly excavated small-flake-tool Paleolithic site near the Youfang (YF) microblade site in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Because the small-flake-tool industry still existed in the late part of the late Pleistocene and might be related to the emergence of microlithic industries, the relationship between the two sites needs to be determined through a chronological study. Two profiles were excavated, and most of the artifact assemblages were unearthed in the lower profile (T1) from a depth of 0.9 m from the bottom. In this study, the feldspar post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence method was applied to determine the age of the YFB site. Results showed that the upper profile was deposited from 86–0.5 ka, and the cultural layer in T1 yielded age of 124–82 ka, corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, with an irregular but generally mild climate. The age of the YFB site is too old to be directly related to that of the YF site, but it partly bridges a chronological gap of human occupation in the Nihewan Basin.
Olanzapine effectively treats schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD-I); however, its use is hindered by significant weight gain. A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain through opioid-receptor blockade. Here, we summarize OLZ/SAM clinical data.
The OLZ/SAM development program consists of 18 phase 1–3 clinical studies evaluating antipsychotic and weight mitigation efficacy of OLZ/SAM, along with pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability. Safety evaluation also included metabolic laboratory assessments.
OLZ/SAM significantly improved psychotic symptoms (measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale); improvements were similar to that observed with olanzapine vs placebo. OLZ/SAM resulted in significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. Additionally, 2 long-term phase 3 extension studies confirmed the durability of antipsychotic effect, as well as stabilization of weight and metabolic parameters in those continuing treatment. Supporting the potential use of OLZ/SAM in BD-I, OLZ/SAM or olanzapine resulted in bioequivalent olanzapine plasma concentrations, and OLZ/SAM did not affect lithium or valproate pharmacokinetics. OLZ/SAM treatment had no clinically relevant effects on ECG parameters (including QTc interval). OLZ/SAM and olanzapine safety were similar, except for reduced weight gain with OLZ/SAM; no additional safety risks were identified.
Data across 18 OLZ/SAM studies in >1600 subjects support an antipsychotic efficacy and safety profile for OLZ/SAM that is similar to olanzapine, with significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. OLZ/SAM is a potential new treatment for schizophrenia and BD-I patients needing efficacious long-term treatment with reduced risk of weight gain.
Previous research on the depression scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) has found that different latent factor models have maximized empirical measures of goodness-of-fit. The clinical relevance of these differences is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether depression screening accuracy may be improved by employing latent factor model-based scoring rather than sum scores.
We used an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) database compiled to assess the screening accuracy of the PHQ-9. We included studies that used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) as a reference standard and split those into calibration and validation datasets. In the calibration dataset, we estimated unidimensional, two-dimensional (separating cognitive/affective and somatic symptoms of depression), and bi-factor models, and the respective cut-offs to maximize combined sensitivity and specificity. In the validation dataset, we assessed the differences in (combined) sensitivity and specificity between the latent variable approaches and the optimal sum score (⩾10), using bootstrapping to estimate 95% confidence intervals for the differences.
The calibration dataset included 24 studies (4378 participants, 652 major depression cases); the validation dataset 17 studies (4252 participants, 568 cases). In the validation dataset, optimal cut-offs of the unidimensional, two-dimensional, and bi-factor models had higher sensitivity (by 0.036, 0.050, 0.049 points, respectively) but lower specificity (0.017, 0.026, 0.019, respectively) compared to the sum score cut-off of ⩾10.
In a comprehensive dataset of diagnostic studies, scoring using complex latent variable models do not improve screening accuracy of the PHQ-9 meaningfully as compared to the simple sum score approach.
To assess the association between total alcohol intake, specific alcoholic beverages and sleep quality in a community-based cohort.
A cross-sectional study.
The Kailuan community, China.
Included were 11 905 participants who were free of a history of CVD, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and head injury in or prior to 2012. Alcohol consumption (amount and frequency intake) and alcoholic beverage type were collected in 2006 (baseline) and 2012. Participants were grouped into non-, light- (women: 0–0·4 serving/d; men: 0–0·9 serving/d), moderate- (women: 0·5–1·0 serving/d; men: 1·0–2·0 servings/d) and heavy- (women: >1·0 servings/d; men: >2·0 servings/d) drinkers. Overall sleep quality was measured in 2012 and included four sleep parameters (insomnia, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration, snoring/obstructive sleep apnoea).
We observed a dose–response association between higher alcohol consumption in 2006 and worse sleep quality in 2012 (Ptrend < 0·001), after adjusting for age, sex, socio-economic status, smoking status, physical activity, obesity, plasma lipid profiles, diabetes and hypertension. A similar association was observed when alcohol consumption in 2012 was used as exposure. Alcohol was associated with higher odds of having short sleep duration (adjusted OR for heavy- v. non-drinkers = 1·31; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·57) and snoring (adjusted OR for heavy- v. non-drinkers: 1·38; 95 % CI: 1·22, 1·57). Consumption of hard liquor, but not beer or wine, was significantly associated with poor sleep quality.
Higher alcohol consumption was associated with poorer sleep quality and higher odds of having snoring and short sleep duration.
The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
In this study, the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behaviors and the energy absorption capacity of closed-cell aluminum foams with uniform and graded densities were experimentally studied. The effects of density, strain rate, and graded density on the mechanical performances of aluminum foams were quantitatively evaluated. It was shown that the density had a significant effect on the quasi-static and dynamic compressive stress of aluminum foams. Moreover, impact compression experiment results revealed that aluminum foam was sensitive to the strain rate. As the strain rate increased, the plateau stress and energy absorption capacity increased distinctly and the rate of deformation increased correspondingly. Finally, the investigation of aluminum foams with uniform and graded densities to study their deformation and failure mechanisms, mechanical characteristics, and energy absorption capacities showed that the GD 0.48-IV specimen exhibited superior impact resistance. The present work can provide a valuable reference for the optimum design of aluminum foam against impact loading.
In late December 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named SARS-CoV-2. As of 12 February 2020, more than 44 000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from 23 January 2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. In this study, Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. We found that since 23 January 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since 26 January 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and showed a downward trend from 6 February 2020. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and maintained at a high level from 24 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan migration scale index from 9 January to 22 January, 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan from 22 January to 4 February. Hubei province migration scale index from 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province from 22 January to 4 February. Our findings suggested that people who left Wuhan from 9 January to 22 January, and those who left Hubei province from 10 January to 24 January, led to the outbreak in the rest of China. The ‘Wuhan lockdown’ and the launching of the first-level response to this major public health emergency may have had a good effect on controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Although new COVID-19 cases continued to be confirmed in China outside Wuhan and Hubei provinces, in our opinion, these are second-generation cases.
In this work, we propose a broadband, polarization-insensitive and wide incident angle stable metamaterial absorber (MA) based on the resistive film. The absorber consists of a three-layer structure with each layer of dielectric substrate printed with different shapes of resistive film. The multilayer structure not only extends the absorption bandwidth but also maintains high absorption under large wave incident angles. Numerical simulation shows that the absorptivity of a normal incident wave is above 90% in the frequency range 2.34–18.95 GHz, corresponding to a relative absorption bandwidth of 156%. Moreover, the whole MA structure has a total thickness of 11.3 mm, corresponding to 0.09 λ0 at its lowest absorption frequency. Due to the high symmetry of the structure, the absorber has good polarization insensitivity. In addition, for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidence, the proposed absorber achieves an absorptivity of more than 80% at incident angles of up to 45° and thus has good stability for wide incident angles. The absorption principle of the absorber is analyzed by the surface current and power loss density distribution. Parameter analysis is also performed for bandwidth optimization. Due to its advantages of wideband absorption with high efficiency, the proposed absorber has the potential to be applied to the energy-harvesting and electromagnetic stealth fields.
In recent years, there have been a significant influenza activity and emerging influenza strains in China, resulting in an increasing number of influenza virus infections and leading to public health concerns. The aims of this study were to identify the epidemiological and aetiological characteristics of influenza and establish seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models for forecasting the percentage of visits for influenza-like illness (ILI%) in urban and rural areas of Shenyang. Influenza surveillance data were obtained for ILI cases and influenza virus positivity from 18 sentinel hospitals. The SARIMA models were constructed to predict ILI% for January–December 2019. During 2010–2018, the influenza activity was higher in urban than in rural areas. The age distribution of ILI cases showed the highest rate in young children aged 0–4 years. Seasonal A/H3N2, influenza B virus and pandemic A/H1N1 continuously co-circulated in winter and spring seasons. In addition, the SARIMA (0, 1, 0) (0, 1, 2)12 model for the urban area and the SARIMA (1, 1, 1) (1, 1, 0)12 model for the rural area were appropriate for predicting influenza incidence. Our findings suggested that there were regional and seasonal distinctions of ILI activity in Shenyang. A co-epidemic pattern of influenza strains was evident in terms of seasonal influenza activity. Young children were more susceptible to influenza virus infection than adults. These results provide a reference for future influenza prevention and control strategies in the study area.
Connexin 43 (CX43) is a component of gap junctions. The lack of functional CX43 induces oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in somatic cells. However, the role of CX43 in the early development of porcine embryos is still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of CX43, and its underlying molecular mechanisms, on the developmental competence of early porcine embryos. We performed CX43 knockdown by microinjecting dsRNA into parthenogenetically activated porcine parthenotes. The blastocyst development rate and the total number of cells in the blastocysts were significantly reduced by CX43 knockdown. Results from FITC-dextran assays showed that CX43 knockdown significantly increased membrane permeability. ZO-1 protein was obliterated in CX43 knockdown blastocysts. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production were significantly reduced following CX43 knockdown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were significantly increased in the CX43 knockdown group compared to those in control embryos. Moreover, CX43 knockdown induced autophagy and apoptosis. Our findings indicate that CX43 is essential for the development and preimplantation of porcine embryos and maintains mitochondrial function, cell junction structure, and cell homeostasis by regulating membrane permeability, ROS generation, autophagy, and apoptosis in early embryos.
Heading errors caused by gyroscope drift affect the positioning precision of pedestrian dead reckoning, and these errors are even greater for smartphone-based reckoning. In this study, an optimised improved heuristic drift elimination (O-iHDE) method is proposed to correct the heading errors on a smartphone gyroscope. Based on an analysis of the improved heuristic drift elimination (iHDE) and enhanced improved heuristic drift elimination (E-iHDE) algorithms, the quaternion method is used to update the attitude and angle threshold judgement conditions, and a method for correcting the quaternion is added to eliminate the heading errors caused by random gyro errors. The analysis of multiple sets of experiments shows that the new method improves the ability to discern and correct the walking route, and the heading accuracy is improved by more than 90%, which extends the effective operation time of pedestrian dead reckoning positioning based on the step-by-step system.
Density functional theory (DFT) has proved to be exceptionally successful in rationalizing trends in activity and functionality for electrochemical functional materials. With continued increases in computing power, there has been an increased interest in “high-throughput” materials discovery and design based on a few descriptors to scan the phase space en masse for thousands of potential candidates, which could be made technologically and commercially viable. However, given fundamental accuracy limitations associated with DFT, the success of high-throughput material discovery efforts has been limited. In this review, we suggest an additional dimension to aid in high-throughput material discovery related to uncertainty quantification and propagation, which provides a more realistic picture of the likelihood of new candidate materials to improve upon known materials. We demonstrate the approach and its utility through two case studies: (1) electrocatalyst materials for their activity and selectivity for the oxygen reduction reaction, and (2) cathode materials for Li-ion batteries based on Ni-Mn-Co oxides. The ease with which uncertainty quantification and propagation can be incorporated into traditional high-throughput material discovery with almost no additional computational cost allows for its proposed wide usage.
This article provides an overview of emerging directions in the materials science of biointegrated electronic and microfluidic systems, as defined by technologies that are capable of supporting long-term, intimate, physical interfaces to living organisms. Here, deterministic hard/soft composite structures, including those that leverage concepts in fractal mathematics, serve as the materials foundations for diverse devices of this type. Examples of “epidermal” or skin-like electronic systems for biophysical tracking of patient conditions that range from stroke to hydrocephalus illustrate the engineering maturity and operational sophistication that is now possible. Recent ideas in soft, skin-mounted, microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems extend the capabilities of such platforms to include biochemical assessments of physiological status via capture, storage, manipulation, and in situ detection of biomarkers in microliter volumes of sweat, collected as it emerges from the surface of the skin. The article concludes with a description of mechanically guided assembly schemes that provide access to three-dimensional, open-mesh constructs, as a frontier area of materials development in this broader area of biointegrated systems.