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Resistant starch (RS) has received increased attention due to its potential health benefits. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary corn RS on immunological characteristics of broilers. A total of 320 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments: normal corn-soybean (NC) diet, corn starch (CS) diet group, 4%, 8% and 12% resistant starch (RS) diet groups. This trial lasted for 42 days. The relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa, the concentrations of NO and IL-4 in plasma at 21 day of age, as well as the activities of TNOS and iNOS in plasma at 21 and 42 day of age showed positive linear responses (P < 0.05) to the increasing dietary RS level. Meanwhile, compared with the birds from the NC group at 21 day of age, birds fed 4%RS, 8%RS and 12%RS diets exhibited higher (P < 0.05) relative weight of bursa, and concentrations of NO and IFN-γ in plasma. Birds fed 4%RS and 8%RS diets showed higher (P < 0.05) number of IgA-producing cells in jejunum. While compared with birds from the NC group at 42 day of age, birds fed 12%RS diet showed higher (P < 0.05) relative weight of spleen, and activities of TNOS and iNOS in plasma. These findings suggested that dietary corn RS supplementation can improve immune function in broilers.
How often, and in what contexts, have archaeologists discussed racism over the last four decades? Do societal events lead to sustained discussions of racism among the academic community? Here, the authors seek to answer these questions by applying computational text analysis methods to 68176 abstracts from 41 meetings of the Society for American Archaeology. Discussions of racism are found to be rare—usually a passing mention in the context of broader social issues. Historical archaeologists have addressed racism more frequently than other archaeologists. The results form a baseline against which the discipline's engagement with racism as a research theme and with anti-racist strategies might be tracked.
Subthreshold depression (sD) negatively impacts well-being and psychosocial function and is more prevalent compared with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, as adults with sD are less likely to seek face-to-face intervention, internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) may overcome barriers of accessibility to psychotherapy. Although several trials explored the efficacy of ICBT for sD, the results remain inconsistent. This study evaluated whether ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD.
A randomized controlled trial was performed. The participants were randomly assigned to 5 weeks of ICBT, group-based face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or a waiting list (WL). Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measured depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were analyzed using a mixed-effects model to assess the effects of ICBT.
ICBT participants reported greater reductions on all the outcomes compared to the WL group at post-intervention. The ICBT group showed larger improvement on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at post-intervention (d = 0.12) and at follow-up (d = 0.10), and with CES-D at post-intervention (d = 0.06), compared to the CBT group.
ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD, and improvements in outcomes were sustained at a 6-month follow-up. Considering the low rates of face-to-face psychotherapy, our findings highlight the considerable potential and implications for the Chinese government to promote the use of ICBT for sD in China.
The present study aimed to explore the association between healthy lifestyle pattern and childhood early onset of puberty. Based on a cohort study in Xiamen of China, a total of 1294 children was followed for three and a half years. Children’s lifestyles, including dietary behaviour, physical activity, sleep duration, smoking and drinking behaviour and sedentary behaviour, were collected by questionnaires. Healthy lifestyle pattern was determined mainly according to the recommendations by the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese school-age children and Canadian Guidelines for children and youth. The pubertal development was assessed by clinical examination according to Tanner stages. The association between pre-pubertal lifestyle and early onset of puberty was estimated using linear regression and log-binomial regression. We found that children who adhered to a healthy lifestyle had a 0·36-year delay of the age of puberty onset (coef = 0·36, 95 % CI (0·08, 0·65)) and 53 % lower risk of early onset of puberty (risk ratio = 0·47, 95 % CI (0·27, 0·80)), compared with those who had a poor lifestyle. However, the beneficial effect of favourable lifestyles on the early onset of puberty was found only in boys with normal weight. Boys who adhered to active physical activity and low sedentary behaviour had a relatively delayed age of puberty onset (coef = 0·49, 95 % CI (0·26, 0·72)). This is the first time to find that healthy lifestyle pattern was associated with a substantially lower risk of early onset of puberty, especially in boys with normal weight. Advocating an integrated healthy lifestyle is essential for the development of children.
We aimed to investigate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related knowledge and practices of cancer patients and to assess their anxiety- and depression-related to COVID-19 during the early surge phase of the pandemic.
An online questionnaire survey of cancer patients was conducted from February 10-29, 2020. Knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 were assessed using a custom-made questionnaire. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess the presence of anxiety and depression, with scores beyond 7 indicating anxiety or depressive disorder. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify the high-risk groups according to the level of knowledge, practices, anxiety, and depression scores.
A total of 341 patients were included. The rate of lower level of knowledge and practices was 49.9% and 18.8%, respectively. Education level of junior high school degree or lower showed a significant association with lower knowledge score (β: −3.503; P < 0.001) and lower practices score (β: −2.210; P < 0.001) compared to the education level of college degree and above. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among the respondents was 17.6% and 23.2%, respectively. A higher depression score was associated with older age, marital status of the widowed, and lower level of education, knowledge score, and practices score (P < 0.05).
Targeted COVID-19-related education interventions are required for cancer patients with a lower level of knowledge to help improve their practices. Interventions are also required to address the anxiety and depression of cancer patients.
Wood vinegar, a product of pyrolysis, can induce phytotoxicity on plants when applied at an adequate rate and concentration. The objective of this research was to investigate wood vinegar obtained from the pyrolysis of apple tree branches for weed control in dormant zoysiagrass. In environment-controlled growth chambers, white clover visual injury and shoot mass reduction were evaluated and compared to the nontreated control after wood vinegar application at 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 L ha−1 under 10 C or 30 C temperature conditions. Averaged across rates, wood vinegar rapidly desiccated white clover and caused 83% and 71% visual injury at 10 C and 30 C, respectively, at 1 d after treatment (DAT). Averaged across temperatures, wood vinegar at 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 L ha−1 reduced white clover shoot mass by 56%, 81%, and 98% from the nontreated control at 10 DAT, respectively. In field experiments, weed control increased as wood vinegar rates increased from 1,000 to 5,000 L ha−1 in dormant zoysiagrass. The effective application dose of wood vinegar required to provide 90% control (ED90) of annual fleabane, Persian speedwell, and white clover was determined to be 2,450, 2,300, and 4,020 L ha−1, respectively, at 2 wk after treatment. Turf quality did not differ among the wood vinegar treatments and the nontreated control when zoysiagrass completely recovered from dormancy. Overall, results illustrate that wood vinegar resulting from the pyrolysis of apple tree branches can be used as a nonselective herbicide in dormant turfgrass, offering a new nonsynthetic herbicide option for weed control in managed turf.
We characterized the proteome profile of mid-lactation small-tailed Han (STH) and DairyMeade (DM) ovine milk in order to explore physiological variation and differences in milk traits between the two breeds. Methodology combined a tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomic approach with LC-MS/MS technology. A total of 656 proteins were identified in STH and DM ovine milk, of which 17and 29 proteins were significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) in STH and DM, respectively. Immune-related proteins and disease-related proteins were highly expressed in STH milk, whereas S100A2 and AEBP1 were highly expressed in DM milk, which had beneficial effects on mammary gland development and milk yield. Our results provide a theoretical basis for future breeding of dairy sheep.
South-east Asia's diverse coastal wetlands, which span natural mudflats and mangroves to man-made salt pans, offer critical habitat for many migratory waterbird species in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Species dependent on these wetlands include nearly the entire population of the Critically Endangered spoon-billed sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and the Endangered spotted greenshank Tringa guttifer, and significant populations of several other globally threatened and declining species. Presently, more than 50 coastal Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) in the region (7.4% of all South-east Asian IBAs) support at least one threatened migratory species. However, recent studies continue to reveal major knowledge gaps on the distribution of migratory waterbirds and important wetland sites along South-east Asia's vast coastline, including undiscovered and potential IBAs. Alongside this, there are critical gaps in the representation of coastal wetlands across the protected area networks of many countries in this region (e.g. Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia), hindering effective conservation. Although a better understanding of the value of coastal wetlands to people and their importance to migratory species is necessary, governments and other stakeholders need to do more to strengthen the conservation of these ecosystems by improving protected area coverage, habitat restoration, and coastal governance and management. This must be underpinned by the judicious use of evidence-based approaches, including satellite-tracking of migratory birds, ecological research and ground surveys.
Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a major challenge in prehospital bleeding control and is associated with high mortality. This study was performed to estimate medical knowledge and the perceived barriers to information acquisition among health-care workers (HCWs) regarding NCTH in China.
A self-administered and validated questionnaire was distributed among 11 WeChat groups consisting of HCWs engaged in trauma, emergency, and disaster rescue.
A total of 575 HCWs participated in this study. In the knowledge section, the majority (87.1%) denied that successful hemostasis could be obtained by external compression. Regarding attitudes, the vast majority of HCWs exhibited positive attitudes toward the important role of NCTH in reducing prehospital preventable death (90.4%) and enthusiasm for continuous learning (99.7%). For practice, fewer than half of HCWs (45.7%) had heard of NCTH beforehand, only a minority (14.3%) confirmed they had attended relevant continuing education, and 16.3% HCWs had no access to updated medical information. The most predominant barrier to information acquisition was the lack of continuing training (79.8%).
Knowledge and practice deficiencies do exist among HCWs. Obstacles to update medical information warrant further attention. Furthermore, education program redesign is also needed.
Honeybees cannot synthesize arachidonic acid (ARA) themselves, only obtain it from food. Most pollen is deficient or contains a small amount of ARA. The necessity of supplementary ARA in bees’ diet has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ARA levels on the growth and immunity of Apis mellifera ligustica. A total of 25 honeybee colonies were randomly assigned to five dietary groups which were fed basic diets supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of ARA. The diet with 4% ARA improved the body weight of newly emerged worker bees compared with the control group. Supplement of ARA in honeybee diets changed the fatty acid composition of honeybee body. SFA and MUFA contents of bees’ body declined, and PUFA content rised in the ARA group. Compared with the control group, the supplement of ARA in honeybee diets increased the contents of ARA, C22:6n-3 (DHA) and C18:3n-6 in bees’ body significantly, but decreased the contents of C16:1 and C18:3n-3. The diet supplied with 4% ARA reduced the mortality rate of honeybee infected with Escherichia coli. The activity of immune enzymes (phenoloxidase, antitrypsin, and lysozyme) and the mRNA expression levels of immune genes (defensin-2, toll, myd88, and dorsal) were improved by ARA diets to varying degrees depending on the ARA levels, especially 4% ARA. These results suggested that dietary ARA could improve the growth, survival, and immune functions of honeybees. Supplement of ARA in bees’ diet would be valuable for the fitness of honeybees.
EPA and DHA are essential for maternal and fetal health, but epidemiological data are sparse in China. We examined the trends of EPA alone and a combination of EPA plus DHA in pregnant and lactating women in three distinct geographic regions in China and explored their potential influencing factors. A total of 1015 healthy women during mid-pregnancy, late pregnancy or lactation were recruited from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) cities of China between May and July of 2014. Maternal EPA and DHA concentrations (percentage of total fatty acids) in plasma and erythrocytes were measured by capillary GC. Adjusted EPA plus DHA concentrations in both plasma and erythrocytes significantly declined from mid-pregnancy (2·92 %, 6·95 %) to late pregnancy (2·20 %, 6·42 %) and lactation (2·40 %, 6·29 %) (Ptrend < 0·001); and both concentrations were highest in coastland, followed by lakeland, and lowest in inland (P < 0·001). Regarding EPA alone, the concentrations were higher in women during lactation or late pregnancy and in women in coastland and inland areas. Moreover, concentrations of EPA or EPA plus DHA were higher in women with older age, higher education, higher annual family income per capita and higher dietary intake of marine aquatic product and mutton. In lactating women, erythrocyte EPA concentration was higher in those having breast-feeding partially v. exclusively. In conclusion, maternal plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of EPA plus DHA or EPA alone differed with geographic regions, physiological periods and maternal characteristics, indicating a need of population-specific health strategies to improve fatty acids status in pregnant and lactating women.
Accurate assessments of potassium intake in children are important for the early prevention of CVD. Currently, there is no simple approach for accurate estimation of potassium intake in children. We aim to evaluate the accuracy of 24-h urinary potassium excretion (24UKV) estimation in children using three common equations: the Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas, in a hospital-based setting. A total of 151 participants aged 5–18 years were initially enrolled, and spot urine samples were collected in the whole 24-h duration to measure the concentrations of potassium and creatinine. We calculated the mean difference, absolute and relative difference and misclassification rate between measured 24UKV and the predicted ones using Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas in 129 participants. The mean measured 24UKV was 1193·3 mg/d in our study. Mean differences between estimated and measured 24UKV were 1215·6, −14·9 and 230·3 mg/d by the Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas, respectively. All estimated 24UKV were significantly different from the measured values in all the time point (all P < 0·05), except for the predicted values from Tanaka formula using morning, afternoon and evening spot urine. The proportions with relative differences over 40 % were 87·2%, 32·5% and 47·3 % for Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas, respectively. Misclassification rates were 91·5 % for Kawasaki, 44·4 % for Tanaka and 58·9 % for Mage formula at the individual level. Our findings showed that misclassification could occur on the individual level when using Kawasaki, Tanaka and Mage formulas to estimate 24UKV from spot urine in the child population.
The findings regarding the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the metabolic syndrome (Mets) have been inconclusive, and evidence from Chinese populations is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the prevalence of the Mets and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 4424 participants were eligible for the analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the Mets and its components according to red meat, fish and poultry consumption. In addition, the data of our cross-sectional study were meta-analysed under a random effects model along with those of published observational studies to generate the summary relative risks (RR) of the associations between the highest v. lowest categories of red meat, fish and poultry consumption and the Mets and its components. In the cross-sectional study, the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest v. lowest quartiles of consumption was 1·23 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·48) for red meat, 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97) for fish and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·18) for poultry. In the meta-analysis, the pooled RR for the highest v. lowest categories of consumption was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·35) for red meat, 0·88 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·96) for fish and 0·97 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·10) for poultry. The findings of both cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses indicated that the association between fish consumption and the Mets may be partly driven by the inverse association of fish consumption with elevated TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol and, to a lesser extent, fasting plasma glucose. No clear pattern of associations was observed between red meat or poultry consumption and the components of the Mets. The current findings add weight to the evidence that the Mets may be positively associated with red meat consumption, inversely associated with fish consumption and neutrally associated with poultry consumption.
To explore the accuracy of estimated 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIEest) in assessing iodine nutritional status.
Fasting venous blood, 24-h and spot urine samples were collected during the day. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and urinary creatinine concentration (UCrC) were measured, and the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Cr), 24-h UIEest, and 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIE) were calculated. At the population level, correlation and consistency between UIC, UI/Cr, 24-h UIEest and 24-h UIE were assessed using correlation analysis and Bland–Altman plots. At the individual level, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyse the accuracy of the above indicators for evaluating insufficient and excessive iodine intake. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was established based on percentile values.
Indicator can accurately evaluate individual iodine nutrition during pregnancy remains controversial.
Pregnant women (n 788).
Using 24-h UIE as standard, the correlation coefficients of 24-h UIEest from different periods of the day ranged from 0·409 to 0·531, and the relative average differences ranged from 4·4 % to 10·9 %. For diagnosis of insufficient iodine intake, the area under the ROC curve of 24-h UIEest was 0·754, sensitivity and specificity were 79·6 % and 65·4 %, respectively. For diagnosis of excessive iodine intake, the area of 24-h UIEest was 0·771, sensitivity and specificity were 66·7 % and 82·0 %, respectively. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was 58·43–597·65 μg.
Twenty-four-hour UIEest can better indicate iodine nutritional status at a relatively large sample size in a given population of pregnant women. It can be used for early screening at the individual level to obtain more lead time for pregnant women.
It has long been hypothesized that personality plays a causative role in incidence and outcome of breast cancer (BC), but epidemiological evidence of association between personality and BC is inconsistent.
We used two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the impact of personality on the risk and survival of BC. In total, 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were utilized as instruments of neuroticism from a large-scale Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), and five SNPs were utilized as instruments of extraversion from Genetic of Personality Consortium and 23andMe. Genetic association with the risk and survival of overall and individual subtype BC were obtained from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Neuroticism is significantly associated with the risk of overall BC [odds ratio (OR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.11; p = 0.015] and the risk of luminal A BC (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.03–1.16; p = 0.004). Extraversion is not associated with the risk of BC. None of neuroticism or extraversion is associated with the survival of BC.
Neuroticism was associated with a modest increased risk of BC and particularly luminal A BC.