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We have designed and developed the digital correlation receiver for Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER). The MUSER digital correlation receiver is implemented to sample, channelise, and correlate a 400 MHz wide solar radio signal of 40-antenna output from MUSER intermediate-frequency array and 60-antenna output from MUSER high-frequency array. The polyphase filter channeliser is used for wide-band channelisation and proved to be efficient to realise narrow-band filtering (
MHz) in a high-speed digital signal-processing pipeline (sampling rate
Gsps). All modules of the digital correlation receiver are implemented on FPGA-based hardware and integrated via high-speed backplane, which makes a well-performed and economical correlator system for MUSER array. The future upgrade is also addressed including spectral resolution enhancement and radio-frequency-interference excision.
Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER) is an aperture-synthesis imaging telescope, dedicated to observe the Sun, operating on multiple frequencies in dm to cm range. The ability of MUSER to get images and measure Stokes I and V parameters simultaneously at many frequencies in a wide band is of fundamental importance. It allows one to approach/solve such important problems as measuring the strength, geometry and dynamics of magnetic field at coronal heights. Here we consider some of the recently developed radio physics methods to be used for solving the problems. These methods allow us to obtain information that is unattainable in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum.
It is well known that the energy for solar eruptions comes from magnetic fields in solar active regions. Magnetic energy storage and dissipation are regarded as important physical processes in the solar corona. With incomplete theoretical modeling for eruptions in the solar atmosphere, activity forecasting is mainly supported with statistical models. Solar observations with high temporal and spatial resolution continuously from space well describe the evolution of activities in the solar atmosphere, and combined with three dimensional reconstruction of solar magnetic fields, makes numerical short-term (within hours to days) solar activity forecasting possible. In the current report, we propose the erupting frequency and main attack direction of solar eruptions as new forecasts and present the prospects for numerical short-term solar activity forecasting based on the magnetic topological framework in solar active regions.
The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with two arrays in 400MHz-2GHz/2-15GHz ranges with 64/520 frequency channels have been established in Mingantu Observing Station, Inner Mongolia of China, since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH is renamed as Mingantu Ultrawide SpEctral Radioheliograph (MUSER) after its accomplishment. We introduce the progress and current status of MUSER. The first burst imaging results of MUSER is presented.
The main purpose of this panel discussion was to encourage conversation around potential collaborations between the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and IAU Divisions. The discussion was facilitated by the OAD and the conversation revolved mainly around two questions: (i) What should the OAD be doing to enhance the work of the Divisions? (ii) What could the Divisions (both members and respective scientific discipline in general) contribute towards the implementation of the IAU strategic plan?
After more than half a century of community support related to the science of “solar activity”, IAU's Commission 10 was formally discontinued in 2015, to be succeeded by C.E2 with the same area of responsibility. On this occasion, we look back at the growth of the scientific disciplines involved around the world over almost a full century. Solar activity and fields of research looking into the related physics of the heliosphere continue to be vibrant and growing, with currently over 2,000 refereed publications appearing per year from over 4,000 unique authors, publishing in dozens of distinct journals and meeting in dozens of workshops and conferences each year. The size of the rapidly growing community and of the observational and computational data volumes, along with the multitude of connections into other branches of astrophysics, pose significant challenges; aspects of these challenges are beginning to be addressed through, among others, the development of new systems of literature reviews, machine-searchable archives for data and publications, and virtual observatories. As customary in these reports, we highlight some of the research topics that have seen particular interest over the most recent triennium, specifically active-region magnetic fields, coronal thermal structure, coronal seismology, flares and eruptions, and the variability of solar activity on long time scales. We close with a collection of developments, discoveries, and surprises that illustrate the range and dynamics of the discipline.
The MUSER is a solar-dedicated radio interferometric array, which will observe the Sun over a wide range of radio frequencies (0.4–15 GHz), and make high time, space and frequency resolution images of the Sun simultaneously. MUSER is located in Mingantu Station in Inner Mongolia of China, which is about 400 kilometres away from Beijing. MUSER consists of two arrays: MUSER-I and MUSER-II. MUSER-I contains 40 antennas with 4.5-m aperture operating at 400 MHz to 2 GHz. MUSER-II contains 60 antennas with 2-m aperture operating at 2 to 15 GHz. Currently, MUSER has already been established and entered into the stage of test observation. This work is focus on the imaging performance of MUSER-I. This paper introduces MUSER-I briefly, presents the analysis of the array configurations, and evaluates the image quality mainly using the dynamic range, fidelity index, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio, also make some actual solar model simulations with CASA, the results will be shown below.
The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph is a solar dedicated radio interferometric array that will produce high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, and high spectral resolution images of the Sun simultaneously in decimetre and centimetre wave range. Digital processing of intermediate frequency signal is an important part in a radio telescope. This paper describes a flexible and high-speed digital down conversion system for the CSRH by applying complex mixing, parallel filtering, and extracting algorithms to process IF signal at the time of being designed and incorporates canonic-signed digit coding and bit-plane method to improve program efficiency. The DDC system is intended to be a subsystem test bed for simulation and testing for CSRH. Software algorithms for simulation and hardware language algorithms based on FPGA are written which use less hardware resources and at the same time achieve high performances such as processing high-speed data flow (1 GHz) with 10 MHz spectral resolution. An experiment with the test bed is illustrated by using geostationary satellite data observed on March 20, 2014. Due to the easy alterability of the algorithms on FPGA, the data can be recomputed with different digital signal processing algorithms for selecting optimum algorithm.
A novel Ba2MgMoO6:Eu3+ orange-red phosphor was synthesized by the Pechini method and characterized by x-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence properties of BaMgMoO6:Eu3+ phosphors have been represented in the excitation and emission spectra. The charge transfer (CT) band of Ba2MgMoO6 host is situated at near-ultraviolet (UV) region, whose central wave length and bandwidth are 394 and 80 nm, respectively. And it matches well the emission wave length from near-UV light emitting diodes (LEDs). The most intensive emission of 5D0 → 7F1 (598 nm) of Eu3+ in Ba2MgMoO6:Eu3+ is much narrow with a full width at half-maximum less than 2 nm under excitation with either CT band or 394 nm. And a low concentration quenching occurs in Ba2MgMoO6:Eu3+, and the optimal doping concentration is about 0.05. The mechanism of charge and energy transfer from Ba2MgMoO6 host to Eu3+ is proposed and analyzed on the basis of its crystal structure. In a word, Ba2MgMoO6:Eu3+ may be a promising orange-red component for near UV white LEDs.
The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.
We investigated the variations of 74 microwave ZP structures observed by Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at 2.6–3.8 GHz in 9 solar flares, found that the ratio between the plasma density scale height LN and the magnetic field scale height LB in emission source displays a tendency of decrease during the flaring process, indicates that LB increases faster than the LN during solar flares. The detailed analysis of the step-wise decrease of LN/LB in three typical X-class flares reveals the magnetic field relaxation relative to the plasma density.
This work analyzed the morphologic properties of magnetic networks during Carrington Rotations (CRs) 1955 to 2091 by applying the watershed algorithm to magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Interferometer on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft. We found that the magnetic networks are of fractal and the average fractal dimension is Df=1.253±0.011. We also find that both the fractal dimension and the size of magnetic networks are anti-correlated with the solar magnetic activity.
To address fundamental processes in the solar eruptive phenomena it is important to have imaging-spectroscopy over centimetric-decimetric wave range. The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) in 0.4-15 GHz range with high time, space and frequency resolutions is being constructed to achieve this goal. The perspectives to open new observational windows on solar flares and CMEs will be achieved by mapping the radio emission from unstable electron populations during the basic processes of energy release. CSRH is located in a radio quiet region in Inner Mongolia of China. The array of CSRH-I in 0.4-2.0 GHz with 40 4.5m antennas has been established and starts test observations. The 60 2m antennas for array of CSRH-II in 2-15 GHz have been mounted and assembled. The progress and current status of CSRH are introduced.
This work presents an overview of the microwave observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou (SBRS/Huairou) during 1997-2011. The relationships between the microwave bursts and solar flares and the calibration of spectrometers are also studied.
This work applied Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph(CSRH) to simulate the quiet Sun to produce the radio image. Then, we simulate a point source, and make all antennas have a typical phase error(5°) to calculate the dynamic range. It is found that the dynamic range agrees with the theoretical value. The image processing and simulated results are presented.
The design of five-element digital receiver system is decribed. At first, we analyzed the process of data processing in the receiver system. Then we wrote programs to implement the FIR parallel filter and showed its simulation results. Finally the testing result of the correlation receiver system is demonstrated.
A GPU-based acceleration for the direct boundary integral equation method (GPU-DBIE) to extrapolate solar coronal magnetic fields is developed, which is about 1000 times faster than the original DBIE. The 3-d coronal magnetic field is reconstructed for NOAA 11158 on 14-Feb-2011 with the SDO/HMI vector magnetogram as bottom boundary condition. The extrapolated results agree well with the projected SDO/AIA, EUV loops and the STEREO EUV sideviews, which verifies the correctness of our GPU-DBIE method. It is also found that the group of bright EUV loops along magnetic neutral lines agree well with current lines, which may have played an important role in the flare process of the active region.
Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008–2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and modelling, improving our understanding of the physics underlying magnetic activity phenomena. Commission 10 reports on a vigorously evolving field of research produced by a large community. The number of refereed publications containing ‘Sun’, ‘heliosphere’, or a synonym in their abstracts continued the steady growth seen over the preceding decades, reaching about 2000 in the years 2008–2010, with a total of close to 4000 unique authors. This report, however, has its limitations and it is inherently incomplete, as it was prepared jointly by the members of the Organising Committee of Commission 10 (see the names of the primary contributors to the sections indicated in parentheses) reflecting their fields of expertise and interest. Nevertheless, we believe that it is a representative sample of significant new results obtained during the last triennium in the field of solar activity.
A series of drifting microwave bursts during the 30 March 2001 flare are analyzed using the Siberian Solar radiotelescope (SSRT) images at 5.7 GHz and dynamic spectra obtained simultaneously by the spectropolarimeters of National Astronomic Observatories in China (NAOC) in the range 5.2–7.6 GHz. While observing the event with the SSRT, the burst sources were simultaneously recorded at two frequencies, which allowed their relative spatial shifts to be measured and source velocity along the flare loop (observed in soft X-ray and ultraviolet emission) to be evaluated. Estimates were made of the plasma density gradient along the source movement direction, the plasma emission being assumed to be generated at the second harmonic. Drifting burst series occur during transient hard X-ray brightenings. Burst drift rates ranged from $-$10 to 20 GHz/s, with a mean value of about 6 GHz/s. The shape of the drift rate distribution around the mean value is nearly symmetric. It is suggested that the mean value distribution may be related to increased plasma density in the source of subsecond pulses. In particular, the corresponding density variations may be associated with magnetic reconnection processes.
The solar radio bursts and accompanying fine structures recorded by spectrometers at Huairou, Beijing during 1999-2003 are presented. The spectrometers are with high temporal (5-10 ms) and spectral (4-20 MHz) resolutions. We found 91 radio burst events that occurred within half hour of the onset of the CME events which cause solar energetic particle events. The associations of radio fine structures with CME events are discussed.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html