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A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread across the world. Unfortunately, a simplified risk score that could easily be used in primary care or general practice settings has not been developed. The objective of this study is to identify a simplified risk score that could easily be used to quickly triage severe COVID-19 patients. All severe and critical adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on the West campus of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, from 28 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data and laboratory results were obtained. CURB-65 pneumonia score was calculated. Univariate logistic regressions were applied to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital death. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate COX-PH model to analyse risk factors for in-hospital death. A total of 74 patients (31 died, 43 survived) were finally included in the study. We observed that compared with survivors, non-survivors were older and illustrated higher respiratory rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but lower SpO2 as well as impaired liver function, especially synthesis function. CURB-65 showed good performance for predicting in-hospital death (area under curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71–0.91). CURB-65 ⩾ 2 may serve as a cut-off value for prediction of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 81%, F1 score 0.7). CURB-65 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.05–2.46), LDH (HR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001–1.004) and albumin (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.81–1) were risk factors for in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Our study indicates CURB-65 may serve as a useful prognostic marker in COVID-19 patients, which could be used to quickly triage severe patients in primary care or general practice settings.
We have investigated an optical waveguide formed by aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film on sapphire. A good quality AlN thin film on sapphire substrate was prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in this laboratory. A rutile prism coupler was employed to display the waveguide modes (N-lines) with wavelengths of 632.8, 532.1, 514.5 and 488.0 nm. The refractive index and thickness of the waveguide material is obtained by prism-coupler measurement. The dispersion curve of the AlN film is given and the dispersion equation is derived. The attenuation in the waveguide is evaluated by scattering loss measurements using a fiber probe. The attenuation coefficient alpha (α) is 1.5- 2.1 cm−1 depending on the sample and the different modes of waveguide. The accuracy of the measurement is discussed.
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